Virgin Trains had legitimate interest in publishing Corbyn images, rules ICO

data protection Virgin Trains did not breach data protection laws by publishing CCTV images of Jeremy Corbyn as he searched the company s train carriages in search of a seat, the Information Commissioner s Office has ruled. Such an action would ordinarily be in breach of the law, said the ICO, but Virgin had a legitimate interest in releasing the footage to rebut news reports that the Labour leader had been unable to find a seat. Richard Branson, founder of the rail operator, had tweeted out the footage, which was captured on one of his trains on 11 August 2016, to prove that spare seats were in fact available, contradicting the Labour leader s assertion that the train was ram-packed .

Photo: Virgin Trains under CC3.0 licence Corbyn was sat on the floor of the train when he made the comment, which were captured by a filmmaker accompanying him during his campaign to retain the Labour leadership. Countering Branson s tweet, Corbyn he had been unable to sit with his wife, and that he was only able to sit later because train staff had upgraded another family to first class. Virgin Trains did not entirely escape censure. The ICO found that the rail operator did breach the data protection rights several passengers whose faces it had failed to pixellate. Misleading In a statement, ICO head of enforcement Steve Eckersley said: In this case, the ICO s view was that Virgin had a legitimate interest, namely correcting what it deemed to be misleading news reports that were potentially damaging to its reputation and commercial interests. It would not have been possible to achieve Virgin s legitimate interests without publishing Mr Corbyn s image. Virgin could only show that there were empty seats on Mr Corbyn s journey if they showed Mr Corbyn on that journey. The Labour leader s celebrity was also a relevant factor, said Eckersley, as he would have different expectations than other passengers as to his privacy. This was especially the case given the video of the trip he himself had published and that he should reasonably expect Virgin to respond in kind .

By contrast, however, the other passengers whose faces were not pixellated were simply minding their own business and Virgin Trains had infringed on their privacy . Nevertheless, the ICO is taking no action against the company as only three people in the footage were recognisable, none of whom had contacted the ICO to complain. Shortly after the incident, Chris Brogan of B&G Associates wrote on IFSEC Global: The sixth condition of schedule 2 of the Data Protection Act addresses the use of personal data for the legitimate interests of the data controller as long as it does not prejudice the rights and freedoms or legitimate interests of the data subject. Virgin have a legitimate interest in protecting its brand . Jeremy made the issue public and Virgin has defended its rights. This is a balancing act and I suggest that the information tribunal/court would find in favour of Virgin. I cannot see under the circumstances how Jeremy would win the argument that the publication of his images by Virgin prejudiced his rights. Free download: The video surveillance report 2017 Sponsored by IDIS The Video Surveillance Report 2017 covers all things video surveillance based on a poll of hundreds of security professionals. Specifically looking at topics such as open platforms, 4K, low-light cameras, video analytics, warranties and this year due to the growing threat posed, the cybersecurity landscape.

Click here to Download now

Dental Public Health

Jul 26, 2015


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Dental Public Health Dental Public Health Introduction Topics Historical Development Dental Care Delivery in the United States around the world Financing Dental Care Legislative Initiatives Education and Promotion Target Populations Lesson Plan Program Planning Program Evaluation Oral Epidemiology Research Methods Biostatistics Evaluation of Literature and Products Careers in the Government Entreprenurial Initiatives Board Review The Prevention Movement Dental Hygiene s Relation to Dental Public Health Historical Development Dental Hygiene as Forerunner to the Prevention Movement Dr. Alfred Fones Founder of Dental Hygiene School and First Author of Dental Hygiene College Textbook Historical Development Continued Practice Settings Schools Industry Military Hospitals Professional Organizations Preventive Modalities Dental Hygiene Treatment Fluoridation Xylitol Dental Sealants Oral Cancer Exams and Tobacco Cessation Nutritional Counseling Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) Mass Education/Media Dental Care Delivery In the United States Dental Care Delivery Vehicles of Dental Care in the United States FEDERAL Departments of the Federal Government NONGOVERNMENT Private Practice Institutions, Schools Insurance-Based Models STATE Departments of State State Prisons Community Clinics, Schools Dental Public Health The oral health care and education, with an emphasis on the utilization of dental hygiene sciences, delivered to a target population Factors Affecting Dental Health Access to Care ‘ Restriction of dental hygiene services ‘ Shortage of Medicaid providers ‘ Financial Situations Insurance Medicaid ‘ Transportation Factors Affecting Dental Health, Continued SES Relation to Dental Health Dental Hygiene Sciences Increase in the Geriatric Populations Malpractice Insurance Changes Federal Influence Executive Branch System Legislation Senate and House of Representatives President and Cabinet Federal Court Executive Judicial Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Operating Division Human Services Operating Division Public Health Service Operating Division National Institutes of Health Food and Drug Administration Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Indian Health Services Health Resources and Services Administration Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Human Services Operating Division Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Medicaid Medicare Administration for Children and Families Administration on Aging Public Health Service PHS works toward improving and advancing the health of our nation. U.S.

Surgeon General Dental Hygienists work as Public Health Officers. Other Federal Departments Influencing Dental Care Agriculture Defense Education Justice Labor State Treasury Veteran s Affairs United States Peace Corps (which is an executive branch agency) Individual State Influence State Dental Divisions Medicaid S-CHIPS Prisons Tribal Clinics Institutions Community Clinics Dental Health Care Personnel Need Demand Utilization Supply Dental Hygiene Shortages Dental Hygienist to Dentist Employment Ratio = 1:2 Dental Finance Public and Private Funding of Dental Care Historical Funding of Dental Care Patient s Responsibility The Advent of Dental Insurance Medicaid Coverage for Dental Services Today s Dental Financing Payment Methods Fee-for-Service Capitation Plans Encounter Fee Plans Barter System Fee-for-Service A dental practice sets a fee, and a patient and/or third party pays for the fee. UCR: usual, customary and reasonable fee Indemnity plans pay fee-for-service. Discounted coverage available and sliding scales for certain patients in certain clinics Capitation Method Dental Managed Care A certain amount is paid to a dental practice for a certain number of patients. Payment is received whether treatment is provided or not. Many times employees will state that they are not paid for cleanings provided; however, this is not an accurate statement. Encounter and Barter Encounters are for an arrangement paid for each visit. Barter system is used when the dental provider negotiates payment by exchanging goods and services. Insurance Plans Dental Service Corporations Health Service Corporations Preferred Providers Organizations Individual Practice Associations Capitation Programs Dental Billing ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Claim Form ADA CDT Payment Plans Dental Credit Cards Explanation of Benefits Government Role Research Disease Prevention Disease Control Program Planning and Operation Funding for the Education of Dental Professionals Regulation Government s Role U.S.

PHS Federal Block Grants State Governments Local Governments Medicaid Title XIX State/Federal Program Your State s Medicaid Program Other State s Medicaid Program Dental Care Delivery Around the World International Dental Health Care Dental Diseases Historical Perspective Demographics and the Dental Hygienist Global Education of the Dental Hygienist The Role of the Dental Hygienist Access to Care in Other Countries International Dental Health Care, Continued Dental Public Health Programs and Campaigns Oral Health Policies Lobbying Groups International Dental Organizations International Overview Related Dental Professionals Regulation of Dental Hygienists Independent Practice Portability of Licensure Future of Dental Hygiene Legislative Initiatives Affecting Dental Hygiene Practice In the United States Issues in the United States Preceptorship/Alternative Education On-the-Job Training for Supragingival Scaling Restrictive Supervision Laws Affecting Access to Care Advanced Dental Hygiene Practitioner State Governments Legislative Executive Judicial Major Bodies of Law Common Law Statutory Law Constitutional Law Administrative Law Laws Pertaining to Dental Hygiene State Dental Hygiene Practice Act, sometimes referred to as the statute Supervision Status State Dental Board Administrative Law Governs Dental Hygienists and the Practice of Dental Hygiene Rules and Regulations Self-Regulation Supervision Types Unsupervised Independent Practice Collaborative Practice General Supervision Indirect Supervision Direct Supervision International Overview Related Dental Professionals Regulation of Dental Hygienists Independent Practice Portability of Licensure Future of Dental Hygiene Dental Health Education and Promotion Health Education Principles Five Dimensional Health Model Physical Mental Social Spiritual Emotional Dental Health Education Goal: to prevent dental diseases utilizing appropriate dental health interventions Health Education Principles Health Education: the education of health behaviors that bring an individual to a state of health awareness Health Promotion: the informing and motivating of people to adopt health behaviors Health Behavior: an action that helps prevent illness and promotes health for a population Goals of Dental Health Education Provide Effective Dental Health Education. Change Values Aimed at Improving Health. Healthy Behaviors Stages of Learning Unawareness Awareness Self-Interest Involvement Action Habit Transtheoretical Model Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Maintenance Action Theory of Reasoned Action Attitude toward the behavior Subjective norms Perceived behavioral control Intention Behavior Social Cognitive Theory Self-Efficacy Theory Knowledge Behavior Environment Empowerment Models Participant Oriented Social Environments Motivation Motivation is the will of the individual to act. Maslow s Heirarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Need for Self-Esteem Belongingness and Love Safety Needs Physiological Needs Behavioral Conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Modeling Lesson Plan Development Assessment Phase Assess target populations needs interests abilities Assess resources Dental Hygiene Diagnosis Formulate Findings from Assessment into a Diagnosis. Prioritize Goals. Planning Broad Goal Formulation Specific Objectives Select Teaching Methods. Implementation Be Prepared. Effective Teacher Characteristics Evaluation Qualitative Measurement Quantitative Measurement Information Provided to Appropriate Parties Target Populations For the Practicing Hygienist Target Populations A group of individuals with similarities of some sort whether it be age, race, educational background, life situations, and/or health conditions Specific Target Populations Family Caregivers Health Care Workers Hospice Workers Persons with Medical Conditions/ Diseases Developmentally Disabled Hearing Impaired Visual Impairments School Teachers Social Workers Ages Prenatal Infancy Children Adults Older Adults Cultural Diversity The social, ethnic, and cultural elements that compose a person. Barriers to Dental Hygiene and Dental Care Age Culture Education Transportation Illiteracy No providers Social Issues Language No Finances Values Attitudes Invulnerability Education Levels Habit Lack of Faith Safety Denial of Disease Convenience Provider Conflicts Misunderstanding Fear Program Planning For the Dental Hygienist What is a dental public health program?

Educational, clinical, and referral services to a target population Preventive Programs School Fluoride Mouthrinse Programs School Dental Sealant Programs Xylitol Programs Mouthguard Programs Dental Health Educational Programs Tobacco Cessation Programs Denture Identification Programs Dental Public Health Programs Healthy Smile Program Inner City Health Center Dental Program Soroptomist Dental Project Matthew 25 Operation Smile Dental Hygiene Program Planning Paradigm Assessment Population s dental needs Demographics Facility Personnel Existing Resources Funding Dental Hygiene Program Planning Paradigm, Continued Dental Hygiene Diagnosis Prioritization of needs Formulation of diagnosis to provide goals and objectives for blueprint Methods to measure goals Blueprint Address constraints and alternatives. Planning Dental Hygiene Program Planning Paradigm, Continued Implementation Program will begin operation. Revision and changes identified and employed Measuring goals Qualitative and quantitative evaluation Ongoing revisions employed Evaluation Program Evaluation Dental Public Health Program Evaluation Program Planning ‘ Objectives Measurement of Objectives Formative Summative Evaluation Techniques Traditional Nonclinical Measurements Interviews Surveys Basic BSS Dental Indexes Clinical Methods Government s Evaluation Healthy People 2010 Objectives and Evaluation Mechanisms NOHSS Call to Action Oral Epidemiology Study of Oral Diseases Multifactorial Nature of Disease Terminology Epidemic Endemic Pandemic Disease Rates Mortality Morbidity Prevalence Incidence Etiology Surveilance Risk Factors Index Oral Epidemiology Reports Morbidity and Mortality (MMWR) Healthy People Reports Surgeon General s Report Call to Action Global Oral Data Bank Epidemiology of Oral Diseases Periodontal Diseases Tooth Loss Dental Caries Oral Cancer Cleft Lip/Palate Injury Toothaches Research In Dental Hygiene Significance of Research to Dental Hygiene Dental public health is based upon programs that have demonstrated effectiveness in achieving health for the population. Types of Research Historical Descriptive Epidemiological Survey Observational Case Studies Correlational Longitudinal Cross-sectional Retroactive Experimental (Prospective) Quasi-experimental Beginning Research Research Question Does Brand X toothpaste whiten teeth? Positive Hypothesis Brand X toothpaste does significantly whiten teeth. There is no statistically significant difference between Brand X and a placebo when comparing the whitening of teeth. Null Hypothesis Research Design Formulating a hypothesis Review of the literature Methods and materials Statistical evaluation Experimental Approaches Two group pretest/post-test designs Time series Post-test only Solomon three and four group Factorial Placebos Control groups Sampling Techniques Randomization Systematic Convenience Stratifying Informed Consent Informed Consent is part of examining the ethics of the research project as a whole. Dental Research Biostatistics Categorizing Data Discrete or Continuous Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Descriptive Statistics Measures of Central Tendency Mean Median Mode Measures of Dispersion Range Variance Standard Deviation The Normal Distribution Gaussian Distribution Bell-Shaped Curve Skewed Data Graphing Data Frequency Distribution Table Grouped Frequency Table Bar Graph Histogram Polygon 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr East West North Correlation Correlation Coefficients Positive Correlation Negative Correlation Strong Correlation Correlation Pearson Product Movement Correlation Coefficient Spearman Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient Statistical Decision Making Probability Type I Error Type II Error Degrees of Freedom Inferential Statistics Parametric Inferential Statistics Student t-test Analysis of Variance Nonparametric Inferential Statistics Chi Square Test Other Nonparametric Tests Interpretation of Data Statistical Significance Clinical Significance Research Results Validity: Results of the study can be inferred to the general population. Reliability: The study was conducted in a controlled manner and if repeated would lend the same results; thus, the study is reproducible.

Evaluation of Scientific Literature and Dental Products Regulation of Dental Care Products Food and Drug Administration American Dental Association Seal of Acceptance Dental Hygienist s Role Critical consumer Patient education Awareness of advertising techniques Evaluation of Scientific Literature Introduction Purpose Research Design Sample Selection Product Usage Examiners Statistical Significance Results Careers in Dental Public Health Positions for the RDH U.S.

PHS VA Hospitals Federal Prisons Military Base Clinics Other Agencies United States RDH Positions Commissioned Officer Positions Civil Service Positions National Health Service Corps Other Options Independent Contractor Employee of Dental Staffing Agency Student Opportunities COSTEP Strategies for Creating Dental Hygiene Positions In Dental Public Health Settings Populations Homebound Institutionalized Populations with Disabilities Rural Area Residents Population with Dental Phobias Populations faced with Language or Cultural Barriers Patients without Financing Proposed Plan for Action Dental Hygiene Program Planning Paradigm Assessment Dental Hygiene Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation Practice Management Issues Patient tracking Appointment scheduling Practice promotion Collection of fees Proposal Development and Presentation Introduction Significance of Position Blueprint of the Operational Program Conclusion Contracts Teaching Strategies Dental Public Health Review Community Health/Research Principles Promoting health and preventing disease within groups Participating in community programs Analyzing scientific information, utilizing statistical concepts, and applying research results Dental Public Health: Contemporary Practice for the Dental Hygienist: The Dental Hygienist is the Premier Dental Public Health Provider.


  1. ^ Documents (documents.mx)
  2. ^ yogi2311 (documents.mx)
  3. ^ Download Dental Public Health (documents.mx)

Private Investigators License

Overview of the UK S.I.A Private Investigators licence In the Private Security Industry various sectors have already been licenced such as: Manned guards, Door supervisors, Close protection operatives, Public space surveillance (CCTV) operators and Security guards by the Security Industry Authority. The S.I.A is the organisation responsible for this regulation and reports to the Home Secretary.
Private Investigators License

The Security Industry Authority1 has a series of objectives which cover these professions and the Private Investigator sector, such as: “Providing services and standards to their customers”, “Delivering regulatory activities effectively and efficiently”, “Delivering a development programme that continues effective regulation of the private security industry” and “To be recognised internally and externally as a model of good practice”.

As Licensing for Private Investigators is a government priority2 in the UK.

The following indices can be drawn from existing literature:

Although Private Investigator licences and the requirement for a business licence are still subject to Ministerial approval, the momentum is there and a whole new world of regulation, inspection and bureaucracy is coming.

A typical S.I.A Licence costs: 220.00 and lasts for 3 years. To get the S.I.A Private Investigator licence you need to pass the, “Fit and Proper person” tests and need to have successfully completed a, “Test of Competency”, such as The Association of British Investigators Training Academy: IQ Level 3 Award for Professional Investigators3 or the BTEC Professional Investigators4, costing around: 300.00 – 400.00.

Please note that that the Draft British Standard for the Provision of Investigative Services recommends that the competence necessary to complete an investigation has been demonstrated by the supplier of the services: Conducting investigations, conducting interviews, searching for information and preserving evidence, surveillance techniques, understanding and working to relevant laws and standards and the ability to report findings the syllabus of the Level three Awards5….

The rush amongst Investigation companies to gain as much kudos and credibility as possible by attaing, “Voluntary , Kite marks, such as: British Standard 1020006, has abated and “Self regulation”, is, now, the order of the day. The organisations and businesses that wish to bid for government contracts have enroled on the Approved Contractor Scheme (ACS) – involving eligibility checks, an assessement conducted by an external body and hefty annual registration fees.

Please note that in Northern Ireland some of the criteria for assessing convictions are: “Conflict related”. All applications are actually assessed on an individual basis and the decision is specific to each licence type. The SIA licensing system decision is open to appeal.

In order to apply for a licence you must have the right to work in the UK but you do not have to be a British Citizen.

With your licence you can begin your journey as an investigator, but, only experience, continual training and luck will ensure you make a successful profitable, career in the sector.


  1. ^ Security Industry Authority (www.sia.homeoffice.gov.uk)
  2. ^ As Licensing for Private Investigators is a government priority (private-investigator-training.org.uk)
  3. ^ IQ Level 3 Award for Professional Investigators (private-investigator-training.org.uk)
  4. ^ BTEC Professional Investigators (www.private-investigator-training.org.uk)
  5. ^ syllabus of the Level three Awards (private-investigator-training.org.uk)
  6. ^ British Standard 102000 (private-investigator-training.org.uk)

First Base Technologies

Founded in 1989 by Peter Wood, First Base Technologies LLP provides independent cyber security consultancy, testing and awareness services. We pride ourselves on being ethical, pragmatic and professional, delivering quality services on time and within budget. The independence of our advice is guaranteed, since we have no commercial involvement in product sales or installation. You will appreciate our commitment to maintaining a long-term business relationship, with expert opinion available on demand whenever you need it.

Our CREST membership and our ISO 9001 and ISO 27001 certifications demonstrate a dedication to quality service and security management that you can depend on. We don’t just talk about cyber security, we live and breathe it. Experts in their fields, our people are thought leaders in cyber security counter-measures, analysis and emerging technologies. They work to the highest professional and ethical standards, whether they are providing advice, testing your defences or helping educate your staff.

You can be sure that your cyber security is in safe hands.

NRA: Schools Should Have Armed Security Guards – Algemeiner.com

Jump to Link in Article

Wayne LaPierre, executive vice president of the National Rifle Association.

Photo: Screenshot.

WSJ WASHINGTON The nation s most powerful gun-rights lobby called Friday for armed security guards in schools, saying that children had been left vulnerable in their classrooms.

Wayne LaPierre, executive vice president of the National Rifle Association, said that the monsters and the predators of the world have exploited the fact that schools are gun-free zones.

Other important institutions from banks to airports to sports stadiums are protected with armed security, he said, but this country has left students defenseless.

Read full story. 1


  1. ^ Read full story. (online.wsj.com)

NJ Private Security Guards Want To Unionize | WBGO Jazz 88.3FM

By Monica Miller, WBGO News
Newark. December 6, 2012

Listen to Report1

NJ Private Security Guards Want To Unionize | WBGO Jazz 88.3FM

Newark City Hall

Private security guards have gained the support of some Newark officials to unionize.

Michael Thomas fought in the Persian Gulf and has worked in security for more than 20 years.

Currently, I make about $8.50 an hour.

He says it s not nearly enough to provide for his family and needs to supplement his income with a job as a pizza delivery man. He supports a wife who is disabled and in a wheelchair.

It s not enough to provide for yourself, your healthcare because my jobs doesn t have health benefits, personal days, sick days or vacation time.

Newark City Councilman Ron Rice, Jr.

along with Mayor Cory Booker say their jobs are vital to the community.

Not just within our economy, but also for our own security in a time of heightened terrorist threats and a time of challenges with crime.

There are more than 20,000 private security workers throughout the state.

2012 WBGO News


  1. ^ Listen to Report (www.wbgo.org)

'Everyone in US under virtual surveillance' NSA whistleblower

The FBI has the e-mails of nearly all US citizens, including congressional members, according to NSA whistleblower William Binney. Speaking to RT he warned that the government can use information against anyone it wants.

One of the best mathematicians and code breakers in NSA history resigned in 2001 because he no longer wanted to be associated with alleged violations of the constitution.

He asserts, that the FBI has access to this data due to a powerful device Naris.

This year Binney received the Callaway award. The annual award was established to recognize those, who stand out for constitutional rights and American values at great risk to their personal or professional lives.

RT: In light of the Petraeus/Allen scandal while the public is so focused on the details of their family drama one may argue that the real scandal in this whole story is the power, the reach of the surveillance state.

I mean if we take General Allen thousands of his personal e-mails have been sifted through private correspondence. It s not like any of those men was planning an attack on America. Does the scandal prove the notion that there is no such thing as privacy in a surveillance state?

William Binney: Yes, that s what I ve been basically saying for quite some time, is that the FBI has access to the data collected, which is basically the e-mails of virtually everybody in the country.

And the FBI has access to it. All the congressional members are on the surveillance too, no one is excluded. They are all included.

So, yes, this can happen to anyone. If they become a target for whatever reason they are targeted by the government, the government can go in, or the FBI, or other agencies of the government, they can go into their database, pull all that data collected on them over the years, and we analyze it all. So, we have to actively analyze everything they ve done for the last 10 years at least.

RT: And it s not just about those, who could be planning, who could be a threat to national security, but also those, who could be just

WB: It s everybody.

The Naris device if it takes in the entire line, so it takes in all the data. In fact they advertised they can process the lines at session rates, which means 10 gigabit lines. I forgot the name of the device (it s not the Naris) the other one does it at 10 gigabits.

That s why the building Buffdale, because they have to have more storage, because they can t figure out what s important, so they are just storing everything there. So, e-mails are going to be stored there for the future, but right now stored in different places around the country. But it is being collected and the FBI has access to it.

RT: You mean it s being collected in bulk without even requesting providers?


RT: Then what about Google, you know, releasing this biannual transparency report and saying that the government s demands for personal data is at an all-time high and for all of those requesting the US, Google says they complied with the government s demands 90% of the time.

But they are still saying that they are making the request, it s not like it s all being funneled into that storage. What do you say to that?

WB: I would assume, that it s just simply another source for the same data they are already collecting. My line is in declarations in a court about the 18-T facility in San Francisco, that documented the NSA room inside that AST&T facility, where they had Naris devices to collect data off the fiber optic lines inside the United States.

So, that s kind of a powerful device, that would collect everything it was being sent. It could collect on the order over one hundred billion one thousand character e-mails a day. One device.

RT: You say they sift through billions of e-mails.

I wonder how do they prioritize? How do they filter it?

WB: I don t think they are filtering it. They are just storing it.

I think it s just a matter of selecting when they want it. So, if they want to target you, they would take your attributes, go into that database and pull out all your data.

RT: Were you on the target list?

WB: Oh, sure! I believe I ve been on it for quite a few years.

So I keep telling them everything I think of them in my e-mail. So that when they want to read it they ll understand what I think of them.

RT: Do you think we all should leave messages for the NSA mail box?

WB: Sure!

RT: You blew the whistle on the agency when George W. Bush was the President.

With President Obama in office, in your opinion, has anything changed at the agency in the surveillance program? In what direction is this administration moving?

WB: The change is it s getting worse. They are doing more.

He is supporting the building of the Buffdale facility, which is over two billion dollars they are spending on storage room for data. That means that they are collecting a lot more now and need more storage for it. That facility by my calculations that I submitted to the court for the electronic frontiers foundation against NSA would hold on the order of 5 zettabytes of data.

Just that current storage capacity is being advertised on the web that you can buy. And that s not talking about what they have in the near future.

RT: What are they going to do with all of that? Ok, they are storing something.

Why should anybody be concerned?

WB: If you ever get on the enemies list, like Petraeus did or for whatever reason, than you can be drained into that surveillance.

RT: Do you think they would General Petraeus, who was idolized by the same administration? Or General Allen?

WB: There are certainly some questions, that have to be asked, like why would they target it (to begin with)? What law were they breaking?

RT:In case of General Petraeus one would argue that there could have been security breaches.

Something like that. But with General Allen I don t quite understand, because when they were looking into his private e-mails to this woman.

WB: That s the whole point. I am not sure what the internal politics is That s part of the program.

This government doesn t want things in the public. It s not a transparent government. Whatever the reason or the motivation was, I don t really know, but I certainly think, that there was something going on in the background, that made them target those fellows.

Otherwise why would they be doing it? There is no crime there.

RT: It seems that the public is divided between those, who think that the government surveillance program violates their civil liberties, and those, who say: I ve nothing to hide. So, why should I care?

What do you say to those, who think that it shouldnt concern them.

WB: The problem is if they think they are not doing anything that s wrong, they don t get to define that. The central government does, the central government defines what is right and wrong and whether or not they target you. So, it s not up to the individuals.

Even if they think they are doing something wrong, if their position on something is against what the administration has, then they could easily become a target.

RT: Tell me about the most outrageous thing that you came across during your work at the NSA.

WB: The violations of the constitution and any number of laws that existed at the time. That was the part that I could not be associated with. That s why I left.

They were building social networks on who is communicating and with whom inside this country. So that the entire social network of everybody, of every US citizen was being compiled overtime. So, they are taking from one company alone roughly 320 million records a day.

That s probably accumulated probably close to 20 trillion over the years. The original program that we put together to handle this to be able to identify terrorists anywhere in the world and alert anyone that they were in jeopardy. We would have been able to do that by encrypting everybody s communications except those, who were targets.

So, in essence you would protect their identities and the information about them until you could develop probable cause, and once you showed your probable cause, then you could do a decrypt and target them. And we could do that and isolate those people all alone. It wasn t a problem at all.

There was no difficulty in that.

RT: It sounds very difficult and very complicated. Easier to take everything in and

WB: No. It s easier to use the graphing techniques, if you will, for the relationships for the world to filter out data, so that you don t have to handle all that data.

And it doesn t burden you with a lot more information to look at, than you really need to solve the problem.

RT: Do you think that the agency doesn t have the filters now?

WB: No.

RT: You have received the Callaway award for civic courage. Congratulations! On the website and in the press release it says: It is awarded to those, who stand out for constitutional rights and American values at great risk to their personal or professional lives.

Under the code of spy ethics (I don t know if there is such a thing) your former colleagues, they probably look upon you as a traitor. How do you look back at them?

WB: That s pretty easy. They are violating the foundation of this entire country.

Why this entire government was formed? It s founded with the constitution and the rights were given to the people in the country under that constitution. They are in violation of that.

And under executive order 13526, section 1.7 (governing classification) you can not classify information to just cover up a crime, which this is- and that was signed by President Obama. Also President Bush signed it earlier executive order, a very similar one. If any of this comes into Supreme court and they rule it unconstitutional, then the entire house of cards of the government falls.

RT: What are the chances of that?

What are the odds?

WB: The government is doing the best they can to try to keep it out of court. And, of course, we are trying to do the best we can to get into court. So, we decided it deserves a ruling from the Supreme court.

Ultimately the court is supposed to protect the constitution.

All these people in the government take an oath to defend the constitution.

And they are not living up to the oath of office.

RT: Thank you for this interview.

WB: You are welcome.



  1. ^ Source (rt.com)

Police Arrest Security Guards In UTECH Gay Beating Incident l …

security guards beating gay jamaica Police Arrest Security Guards In UTECH Gay Beating Incident

The St. Andrew Central police department has moved forward to arrest two of the security guards involved in last week s gay beating incident at the University of Technology UTECH.

Last week a YouTube video brought worldwide unwanted attention on Jamaica. The video shows some security guards at the university punching and kicking the male student in a room.

Gay Rights Group Launch Attack On Beenie Man Upcoming Concert1

According to reports, the student was allegedly caught with another male student in a compromised position in a school bathroom. One student escaped the wrath of the guards and an angry mob, but this one wasn t so lucky.

The video sent off a social media firestorm on Twitter and Facebook with hundreds of thousands of people voicing their opinions.

Marksman Limited later fired the guards involved in the incident and now police may charged them with assault.

The security officers acted outside the scope of their duties, Marksman said in a statement. The actions of the security guards are not in keeping with Marksman Limited s contractual arrangements and on-going mandate to protect and secure life and property.

The security guards will go on an identification parade later this week

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  1. ^ Gay Rights Group Launch Attack On Beenie Man Upcoming Concert (urbanislandz.com)

Best read stories on info4security: October 2012

Best read stories on info4security: October 2012 The month of October was dominated by the biggest night in the UK security industry calendar: the Security Excellence Awards. I m sure you didn t miss it, but if you did, here are all the top stories from the glittering night, and the rest of October s top 10 stories: 1. Security Excellence Awards 2012 – winners announced 2.

HD CCTV technology risks breaching human rights 3. Retailers back CCTV as nearly 60% plan to move to IP 4. Who are the top 40 influential people in security and fire?

5. BBC documentary investigates armed private security industry 6. How can security installers benefit from IP CCTV surveillance?

7. Security Excellence Awards 2012: finalists announced!

8. Gallery of the night: Security Excellence Awards 9.

BSIA responds to HD CCTV warning 10.

CCTV: Apple store ram raid in California

Supreme Court Urged to Grant Standing in Surveillance Challenge …

In its new term that began yesterday, the U.S. Supreme Court will hear arguments over whether to affirm the right of journalists and human rights organizations to challenge the constitutionality of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) Amendments Act, or FAA.

The FISA Amendments Act authorizes the collection of a broad swath of public communications without a warrant (though not the intentional targeting of the communications of any particular U.S. person). As such, critics say, it jeopardizes freedom of communication with individuals abroad.

At issue is whether the plaintiffs, represented by the American Civil Liberties Union, have the standing to bring the case. A lower court said they did not, but an appeals court said they did. It will be up to the Supreme Court to decide the case, which is captioned Amnesty et al v. Clapper1.

The Electronic Privacy Information Center2 filed an amicus brief3 (which I co-signed) urging the Court to affirm standing on grounds that the plaintiffs have established a reasonable concern about the security of their communications, and that existing oversight mechanisms are inadequate.

This threat to privacy is especially acute given the capabilities of the National Security Agency and the absence of meaningful oversight. Where enormous surveillance capabilities and blanket secrecy coexist, the public may reasonably fear the interception and collection of private communications, the EPIC brief4 stated.

Furthermore, the current structure lacks significant public oversight and accountability.

The public, the judiciary (but for the FISC Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court) and almost all Members of Congress are kept in the dark as to the most extensive electronic surveillance program undertaken by the US government. While the DNI and Attorney General provide internal reporting requirements, none of this information is made available to the whole Congress or the public broadly, and thus no meaningful public oversight can occur.

When the law gives new authority to conduct electronic surveillance, there should also be new means of oversight and accountability. The FISA Amendments Act fails this test, the brief5 said.

This entry was posted on Tuesday, October 2nd, 2012 at 11:11 am by Steven Aftergood and is filed under Secrecy6. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.07 feed. You can skip to the end and leave a response. Pinging is currently not allowed.


  1. ^ Amnesty et al v. Clapper (www.aclu.org)
  2. ^ Electronic Privacy Information Center (epic.org)
  3. ^ amicus brief (epic.org)
  4. ^ brief (epic.org)
  5. ^ brief (epic.org)
  6. ^ View all posts in Secrecy (www.fas.org)
  7. ^ RSS 2.0 (www.fas.org)