UK government issues cybersecurity guidelines for connected cars

Cyber The Department for Transport has published cybersecurity guidelines for manufacturers of smart or connected cars. Written with help from the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure, the principles implore everyone in the automotive supply chain to collaborate during the design process and over software upgrades and maintenance long after cars hit the road. The authorities are concerned about the prospect of older vehicles running outdated software.

As cars become increasingly automated and ultimately, driverless the stakes will rise. Last year ethical hackers managed to wrest control of a Tesla Model S while the car was moving and slam on the brakes (see how they did it in the video below). Attacks can even inject malicious code into the electronic control units (ECUs) and controller-area-network (CAN) bus, which control critical systems such as electric steering and braking. Mark Noctor, VP EMEA, Arxan Technologies The eight principles, which were launched by transport minister Lord Callanan, follow: Organisational security is owned, governed and promoted at board level Security risks are assessed and managed appropriately and proportionately, including those specific to the supply chain Organisations need product aftercare and incident response to ensure systems are secure over their lifetime All organisations, including sub-contractors, suppliers and potential 3rd parties, work together to enhance the security of the system Systems are designed using a defence-in-depth approach The security of all software is managed throughout its lifetime The storage and transmission of data is secure and can be controlled The system is designed to be resilient to attacks and respond appropriately when its defences or sensors fail embedded content Connecting to WiFi and external devices via Bluetooth, Modern cars are increasingly smart . The communications and entertainment systems are particularly vulnerable to attack, and can be reverse engineered to access the API libraries that facilitate data sharing between systems, says Mark Noctor, VP EMEA at Arxan Technologies. From here attacks can even inject malicious code into the electronic control units (ECUs) and controller-area-network (CAN) bus, which control critical systems such as electric steering and braking. Preventing application code from being accessed and tampered is one of the biggest priorities in protecting a connected vehicle, and it is encouraging to see the government s guidelines specifically list the ability to protect code and ensure its integrity as key principles. Manufacturers must deploy code hardening measures to prevent attackers from accessing their source code and removing vital data such as cryptographic keys which can be used to access other systems. Anti-tampering measures should be hidden in the code to alert them if the code has been changed, and prevent systems from starting if alterations are detected.

The government announced the Autonomous and Electric Vehicles Bill, which will allow innovation to flourish and ensure the next wave of self-driving technology is invented, designed and operated safely in the UK , during the Queens Speech in June. The outcome of recent efforts by the US government to engage with US automakers over the issue do not augur well. Asked by a Senate committee if they supported mandatory privacy and safety standards, executives from Google, General Motors, Delphi and Lyft were evasive. Free Download: the Cyber Security Crashcourse This report contains 40 slides packed with insight into the trends shaping the industry and how you can protect yourself. Eric Hansleman from 451 Research presents a rapid-fire overview of cyber security.

Click here to download now

Number of high-rises failing fire safety tests grows

Grenfell fire Tests are taking place on the fire resistance of cladding on up to 600 buildings following the Grenfell Tower fire in North Kensington on 14 June. The Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) said all buildings examined so far had failed the test. Most concern Councils were told to prioritise buildings they had most concern over.

Not all the buildings affected have so far been named but a list from the DCLG identifies 14 of the areas: 1. Camden five buildings 2. Brent one 3. Barnet three 4. Hounslow one 5. Islington one 6. Lambeth one 7. Wandsworth two 8. Manchester four 9.

Norwich one 10. Plymouth three 11. Portsmouth two 12. Doncaster one 13. Sunderland five 14. Stockton-on-Tees three Separately, cladding is to be removed from nine tower blocks in Salford, while Bootle said two buildings had cladding that failed tests. The update came as Camden Council said it had told about 200 residents still refusing to vacate four of its tower blocks on the Chalcots estate that they must leave to allow improvement works to go ahead. The majority of the residents of the four buildings were evacuated on Friday night. The cladding on the buildings in the Chalcots estate is similar to Grenfell Tower where the fire is feared to have killed 79 people.

Chalcots was refurbished between 2006 and 2009 by the firm, Rydon; the same firm that oversaw work at Grenfell Tower in 2015-16. The government testing programme began on 21 June with the local authorities asked to submit cladding for examination. Patrols The Local Government Association (LGA) said some councils have introduced 24-hour warden patrols to mitigate the risk before cladding is removed. It said in a statement: Where cladding fails the test, this will not necessarily mean moving residents from tower blocks. In Camden, the decision to evacuate was based on fire inspectors concerns about a combination of other fire hazards together with the cladding. The LGA said it was advising councils still waiting for results of tests to prepare contingency plans so they can take any measures needed quickly . Immediate testing Meanwhile, it has been confirmed that the Grenfell Tower fire started in a Hotpoint fridge freezer within a flat on the fourth floor; the government has ordered immediate testing of the appliance. Police said the fire had not been started deliberately and the speed with which the fire spread was unexpected . Anyone who has a white Hotpoint fridge freezer model number FF175BP or graphite fridge freezer model number FF175BG have been advised to register their appliance with the manufacturer to receive any updates.

The original article was published on our sister site, SHP Online Visit FIREX International for cutting-edge solutions, essential knowledge and the ability to grow your business by getting direct access to the whole fire safety industry. It is the perfect place to get your product in front of thousands of buyers, across a multitude of featured areas. From the brand new Drone Zone, the ARC Village, ASFP Passive Protection Zone, the Engineers of Tomorrow competition and more, it s all under one roof so you ll never miss a beat.

Click here to register your place now to join us at London Excel on 20 22 June

Multiple approvals for British and EU markets would cost the fire industry millions of pounds

FIREX 2017 IFSEC Global caught up with former Royal Navy firefighter Ian Moore about the FIA s new engineering qualifications, the innovations on show at FIREX 2017, his forthcoming talk at Europe s largest fire-safety show, and the need for a holistic approach to fire safety. Ian joined the FIA in September 2015 as the new CEO. Previously to this Ian was the Managing Director of several companies operating in the fire and security industry the most recent being Elmdene International and as a Vice President of Potter Signal.

Recently Chairman of the BSIA Export Council and BSIA Operating Board, member of several fire and security committees, he has a wealth of experience to bring. Having lived in Oman, Taiwan and UAE, Ian also brings strong International experience to support any export activities of the FIA and its members. IFSEC Global: How did you first become involved with fire safety? Ian Moore: Coming from being a weapons engineer in the Royal Navy, I misread the advertisement and thought it said Fire Arms and not Fire Alarms ! In all seriousness, I was fully trained as a firefighter in the Royal Navy and had responsibility on various ships for the fire detection, alarm and sprinkler systems fitted thought the ammunition magazines. Upon leaving the forces, it was by chance I saw the advertisement and the rest, as they say, is history. IG: Could you briefly outline what you plan to cover at FIREX? IM: The FIA s overriding message is that of raising the bar on professionalism. We believe by individual s professional qualifications and companies audited by a third party is the only way to ensure this happens.

In addition we want to promote what the FIA can do for its members which is multifaceted. IG: How much of an impact do you think the new FIA engineering qualifications will have on the skills crisis? IM: I believe it will have a huge impact as does most of the industry given the comments we have received during a recent market survey. We need to make the fire industry attractive to young entrants into the job market and having a formal qualification gained through training is a big step towards that goal. With the potential of a reduction in European skilled labour (due to BREXIT), it is very much the right time to be introducing these qualifications so that we do not get to a crisis point (although many would say we are at that point already). IG: What impact do you think Brexit might have on the fire industry and is there anything the industry can do to prepare or protect itself? IM: Brexit means different things to different companies and cannot be rounded off as good or bad. Once we know the true deals then companies will navigate themselves towards the best for them and their offering. Standards and compliance (specifically to EN) is critical and it is important Government/BSI ensure we don t end up in a position that manufacturers need multiple approvals to cover British and EU markets this would cost the industry millions of pounds in wasted fees/costs.

IG: Are there any recent fire safety innovations that you re particularly excited about? IM: There are a few and they will be on shown during FIREX. To name one that comes to mind, given that I have an imminent meeting on the subject, is Coltraco s constant monitoring of liquefied and non-liquefied gaseous extinguishing systems and water/air-tight integrity by using ultrasonic technology. It s great to see innovation, not just for innovation s sake, but something that can a make a real difference in ensuring life/property safety systems you are relying on are ready to deliver when required. IG: Is there anything that hasn t be spoken about in this Q&A that you think is important to get out to the public? IM: I believe we should always have a holistic view when it comes to fire safety. Each company will obviously promote their products/services as the right solution. Commercial decisions often reduce the option to fit belt and braces so the best solution for the money is sought. Getting a professional risk assessment will go a long way to guiding on the options so spend the time and money in ensuring you get the best advice/guidance as it will save you in the long run and will increase your chances of fitting an effective life /property safety solution.

See Ian Speak at FIREX 2017. Register for the event here. Visit FIREX International for cutting-edge solutions, essential knowledge and the ability to grow your business by getting direct access to the whole fire safety industry. It is the perfect place to get your product in front of thousands of buyers, across a multitude of featured areas. From the brand new Drone Zone, the ARC Village, ASFP Passive Protection Zone, the Engineers of Tomorrow competition and more, it s all under one roof so you ll never miss a beat.

Click here to register your place now to join us at London Excel on 20 22 June


Lessons for Public Health …


1 GAO United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters September 2000 WEST NILE VIRUS OUTBREAK Lessons for Public Health Preparedness GAO/HEHS

Parliamentary report flags concerns about technical skills shortage

security skills crisis A new parliamentary report is urging the government to prioritise efforts to get young people to take up apprenticeships in sectors requiring higher value technical skills, such as electrotechnical. Electrotechnical skillsets are required in a range of security industry professions, including access control, retail security and fire safety alarm systems and CCTV engineering. The electrical industry and its various sub-sectors faces a skills shortage, according to the Electrical Contractors Association (ECA), which recently conducted a survey of its members and found that nearly half all businesses participating expect to see a skills shortage from 2018.

ECA s director of employment and skills Alex Meikle said: It s widely accepted that engineering disciplines, such as electrotechnical, face an ongoing skills shortage. This threatens to derail broader government efforts to develop a highly skilled, highly paid workforce. The ECA provided written evidence to the inquiry which produced the report, stating that government apprenticeship funding policy risked targeting investment at short duration, lower value apprenticeships, which are easier to deliver, rather than technical, longer duration, higher value apprenticeships. Supporting the ECA s assertion, the report has found that the the current balance of apprenticeship funding provision is skewed towards sectors with low wage returns and few skills shortages . Engineers of tomorrow We urge the government to ensure SMEs have the funding they need to train up the electricians and engineers of tomorrow, said Meikle. The apprenticeships report was compiled by a joint inquiry of the House of Commons Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) Committee and the Education Committee, led by Hartlepool MP Iain Wright and Stroud MP Neil Carmichael. The ECA is the UK s largest trade association representing electrical, electrotechnical and other engineering contractors, from regional to European level. Member companies are rigorously assessed before membership is approved. The fire and security industry appears to have woken up to the grave consequences if the skills crisis is left unaddressed.

A ground-breaking apprenticeship standard for the fire and security sector was launched a few weeks ago. And John Battersby, MD of Sunfish Services, recently argued on this site that a formal engineering qualification was key to remedying the problem. Visit Europe s leading security event in June 2017 Visit IFSEC International for exclusive access to every security product on the market, live product demonstrations and networking with thousands of security professionals. From access control and video surveillance to smart buildings, cyber, border control and so much more. It is the perfect way to keep up to date, protect your business and enhance your career in the security industry.

Click here to register your place now to join us at London Excel on 20 22 June 2017.

Security guard – Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “Rent-a-cop” redirects here. For the 1987 film, see Rent-a-Cop (film). “Mall cop” redirects here. For the film, see Paul Blart: Mall Cop. Security Guard/Security Officer Security Guard - Wikipedia A private security officer at a Chinese factory in February 2004. Occupation Occupation type Employment Activity sectors Security Description Related jobs Bouncer, Doorman, Bodyguard, Hall monitor, Armored Truck Personnel, Store detective

A security guard, often known as a security officer, or protective agent is a private person who is hired to protect an organization’s assets (property, people, equipment, money, etc.) from a variety of hazards (such as waste, damaged property, unsafe worker behaviour, criminal activity such as theft, etc.) by using preventative measures. They do this by maintaining a high-visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, observing (either directly, through patrols, or by watching alarm systems or video cameras) for signs of crime, fire or disorder; then taking action to minimize damage (example: warning and escorting trespassers off property) and reporting any incidents to their client and emergency services, such as police and ambulance, as appropriate.1

Security officers are generally uniformed to represent their lawful authority to protect private property. Security guards are generally governed by legal regulations, which set out the requirements for eligibility (e.g., a criminal record check) and the permitted authorities of a security guard in a given jurisdiction. The authorities permitted to security guards vary by country and subnational jurisdiction. Security guards are hired by a range of organizations, including businesses, government departments and agencies and not-for-profit organizations (e.g., churches and charitable organizations).

Until the 1980s, the term watchman was more commonly applied to this function, a usage dating back to at least the Middle Ages in Europe where there was no form of law enforcement (other than it being a private matter). This term was carried over to North America where it was interchangeable with night-watchman until both terms were replaced with the modern security-based titles. Security guards are sometimes regarded as fulfilling a private policing function.

Functions and duties

Security Guard - Wikipedia Bodyguard protects Members of Parliament during public visits by visitors in the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic in 2015.

Many security firms and proprietary security departments practice the “detect, deter, observe and report” methodology. Security officers are not required to make arrests, but have the authority to make a citizen’s arrest, or otherwise act as an agent of law enforcement, for example, at the request of a police officer or sheriff. A private security officer’s primary duty is the prevention and deterrence of crime.

Security personnel enforce company rules and can act to protect lives and property, and they often have a contractual obligation to provide these actions. In addition to basic deterrence, security officers are often trained to perform specialized tasks such as arrest and control (including handcuffing and restraints), operate emergency equipment, perform first aid, CPR, take accurate notes, write detailed reports, and perform other tasks as required by the client they are serving. All security officers are also required to go through additional training mandated by the state for the carrying of weapons such as batons, firearms, and pepper spray (e.g. the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services in California has requirements that a license for each item listed must be carried while on duty).2 Some officers are required to complete police certification for special duties. Virginia training standards for security are identical to police training with regards to firearms (shotgun and handgun) but do not place licensing requirements for other items carried, only that training be provided that is documented. Several security companies have also become certified in RADAR and trained their sworn special police officers to use it on protected properties in conjunction with lights/sirens, allowing them to legally enforce traffic laws on private property.3

The number of jobs is expected to grow in the U.S., with 175,000 new security jobs expected before 2016.4 In recent years, due to elevated threats of terrorism, most security officers are required to have bomb-threat training and/or emergency crisis training, especially those located in soft target areas such as shopping malls, schools, and any other area where the general public congregate. One major economic justification for security personnel is that insurance companies (particularly fire insurance carriers) will give substantial rate discounts to sites which have a 24-hour presence. For a high risk or high value property, the discount can often exceed the money being spent on its security program. Discounts are offered because having security on site increases the odds that any fire will be noticed and reported to the local fire department before a total loss occurs.

Also, the presence of security personnel (particularly in combination with effective security procedures) tends to diminish “shrinkage“, theft, employee misconduct and safety rule violations, property damage, or even sabotage. Many casinos hire security guards to protect money when transferring it from the casino to the casino’s bank. Security officers may also perform access control at building entrances and vehicle gates; meaning, they ensure that employees and visitors display proper passes or identification before entering the facility. Security officers are called upon to respond to potential hazards (such as broken lights or doors, disturbances, lost persons, minor injuries, etc.) and to assist in serious emergencies (medicals, fires, crime, etc.) by securing the scene to prevent further loss or damage, summoning emergency responders to the incident, helping to redirect foot traffic to safe locations, and by documenting what happened on an incident report to give their client an idea of how to prevent similar situations from occurring. Armed security officers are frequently contracted to respond as law enforcement until a given situation at a client location is under control and/or public authorities arrive on the scene.

Patrolling is usually a large part of a security officer’s duties, as most incidents are prevented by being looked for instead of waiting for them to occur. Often these patrols are logged by use of a guard tour patrol system, which require regular patrols. Until recently the most commonly used form used to be mechanical clock systems that required a key for manual punching of a number to a strip of paper inside with the time pre-printed on it. But recently, electronic systems have risen in popularity due to their light weight, ease of use, and downloadable logging capabilities.5 Regular patrols are, however, becoming less accepted as an industry standard, as it provides predictability for the would-be criminal, as well as monotony for the security officer on duty. Random patrols are easily programmed into electronic systems, allowing greater freedom of movement and unpredictability. Global positioning systems are beginning to be used because they are a more effective means of tracking officers’ movements and behavior.


Although security officers differ from police officers, military personnel, federal agents/officers, and the like, Australia and the United States have a growing proportion of security personnel that have former police or military experience, including senior management personnel. On the other hand, some security officers, young people in particular, use the job as practical experience to use in applying to law enforcement agencies.

Types of personnel and companies

Security Guard - Wikipedia A security guard protecting the entrance to an apartment building, and managing the parking of cars in Haikou, Hainan Province, China.

Security personnel are classified as one of the following:

  • “In-house” or “proprietary” (i.e. employed by the same company or organization they protect, such as a mall, theme park, or casino); formerly often called works police or security police in the United Kingdom.
  • “Security supervisor”, meets with clients and employees as necessary to ensure client and employee satisfaction.
  • “Scheduler”, Security Officer assignment and strategic scheduling resulting in client satisfaction, employee retention and cost maintained within District financial plans.6
  • “Human Resources Manager”, effective delivery of human resources services such as employment, employee/labor relations, compensation, benefits administration, training and development, workers compensation, and audit compliance. Maintains and implements corporate policies and programs related to employment.7
  • “Client Service Manager”, promotes financial growth for the District by ensuring client retention, Security Officer retention, and support for the development of new business.8
  • “Client Service Supervisor”, provides security services for designated clients resulting in customer satisfaction, Security Officer retention, and financial growth for the District. Provides service in a large and complex area.9
  • Contract“, working for a private security company which protects many locations.
  • “Public Security”, a person employed or appointed as an (usually armed) security officer by a government or government agency.
  • “Private Police Officers”, or “Special Police”.
  • “Private Patrol Officers”, vehicle patrol officers that protect multiple client premises.
  • Parapolice“, aggressive firms that routinely engage in criminal investigation and arrest.101112

Industry terms for security personnel include: security guard, security officer, security agent, safety patrol, private police, company police, security enforcement officer, and public safety.

Terms for specialized jobs include bouncer, bodyguards, executive protection agent, loss prevention, alarm responder, hospital security officer, mall security officer, crime prevention officer, patrolman, private patrol officer, and private patrol operator.

Security Guard - Wikipedia Cash in transit van with a crew of security guards in Guangzhou, China

State and local governments sometimes regulate the use of these terms by law for example, certain words and phrases that “give an impression that he or she is connected in any way with the federal government, a state government, or any political subdivision of a state government” are forbidden for use by California security licensees by Business and Professions Code Section 7582.26. So the terms “private homicide police” or “special agent” would be unlawful for a security licensee to use in California. Similarly, in Canada, various acts1314 specifically prohibits private security personnel from using the terms Probation Officer, law enforcement, police, or police officer. Alberta and Ontario prohibit the use of the term Security Officer, which has been in widespread use in the United States for many decades. Recent changes to the act have also introduced restrictions on uniform and vehicle colours and markings to make private security personnel clearly distinctive from police personnel. Some sources feel that some of these restrictions are put in place to satisfy the Canadian Police Association.15 Specialized VIP security guard services and companies are in high demand and are defined by their ability to protect celebrities and executives during times of unrest16 There is a marked difference between persons performing the duties historically associated with watchmen and persons who take a more active role in protecting persons and property. The former, often called “guards”, are taught the mantra “observe and report”, are minimally trained, and not expected to deal with the public or confront criminals.

The latter are often highly trained, sometimes armed depending on contracts agreed upon with clientele, and are more likely to interact with the general public and to confront the criminal element. These employees tend to take pride in the title “Security Officer” or “Protection Officer” and disdain the label of “guard”. Security jobs vary in pay and duties. There is sometimes little relationship between duties performed and compensation, for example some mall “security officers” who are exposed to serious risks earn less per hour than “industrial security guards” who have less training and responsibility.17 However, there are now more positions in the security role that separate not just the titles, but the job itself. The roles have progressed and so have the areas for which security people are needed. The term “agent” can be confusing in the security industry because it can describe a civil legal relationship between an employee and their employer or contractor (“agent of the owner” in California PC 602), and also can describe a person in government service (“Special Agent Jones of the Federal Bureau of Investigation“.) The title “agent” can be confused with bail enforcement agents, also known as “bounty hunters”, who are sometimes regulated by the same agencies which regulate private security. The term “agent” is also used in other industries, such as banking agents, loan agents and real estate agents.

Security agents are often employed in loss prevention and personal or executive protection (bodyguards) roles. They typically work in plainclothes (without a uniform), and are usually highly trained to act lawfully in direct defense of life or property. Security personnel are private citizens, and therefore are bound by the same laws and regulations as the citizenry they are contracted to serve, and therefore are not allowed to represent themselves as law enforcement under penalty of law.1819


Security Guard - Wikipedia A Kenyan private security guard.

Just as with the police profession, training requirements for the private security industry have evolved over time.3 For many years security guards were poorly chosen and poorly trained (if at all), partly because security guard companies who contracted with clients in private industry were paid very little for their security guard services. For the most part, contracts were awarded to security guard companies through a competition process and the final selection was often made based on cost rather than the experience or professionalism of the security guard company. That changed drastically on September 11, 2001 when radical terrorists attacked the United States. The event moved corporate threat concerns to the top of the priority list for most security guard contracts started being awarded based on professionalism. More money was invested in security so more money became available for training of security guards.

The term ‘security professional’ began to surface and large private security companies like Blackwater, USA began offering training services for the private security industry that approached the level of training provided by the military. Security guard companies began paying enough to attract people with significant backgrounds in law enforcement and the military, often in special operations.


Any person who conducts a business or is employed in a security-related field within Australia is required to be licensed. Each of the six states and two territories of Australia have separate legislation that covers all security activities. Licensing management in each state/territory is varied and is carried out by either Police, Attorney General’s Department, Justice Department or the Department of Consumer Affairs.

  • New South Wales (Police) Security Industry Act 1997 & Security Industry Regulation 2007
  • Victoria (Police) Private Security Act 2004
  • Queensland (Justice & Attorney-General) Security Providers Act 1993
  • South Australia (Consumer & Business Affairs) Security and Investigation Agents Act 1995
  • Western Australia (Police) Security & Related Activities (Control) Act 1996 & Security & Related Activities (Control) Regulations 1997
  • Tasmania (Police) *Security and Investigation Agents Act 2002
  • Northern Territory (Justice) Private Security Act & Private Security (Security Officer/Crowd Controller/Security Firms/Miscellaneous Matters) Regulations;
  • Australian Capital Territory (Regulatory Services) Security Industry Act 2003 & Security Industry Regulation 2003

All of this legislation was intended to enhance the integrity of the private security industry. All persons licensed to perform security activities are required to undertake a course of professional development in associated streams that are recognised nationally. This has not always been the case and the introduction of this requirement is expected to regulate the educational standards and knowledge base so that the particular job can be competently performed. Strict requirements are laid down as to the type of uniform and badge used by security companies.

Uniforms or badges that may be confused with a police officer are prohibited. Also, the use of the titles ‘Security Police’ or ‘Private Detective’ are unacceptable. While the term security guard is used by companies, government bodies and individuals, the term security officer is deemed more suitable. Bouncers use the title Crowd Controllers, and Store Detectives use the title Loss Prevention or Asset Protection Officers. Security Officers may carry firearms, handcuffs or batons where their role requires them to do so and then only when working and have the appropriate sub-class accreditation to their license.


See also: Gun politics in Canada Laws and regulation Security Guard - Wikipedia Security vehicle and guard in Montreal, Quebec.

In Canada, private security falls under the jurisdiction of Canada’s ten provinces and three territories. All ten of Canada’s provinces and one of its territories (the Yukon) have legislation that regulates the contract security industry.20 These eleven jurisdictions require that companies that provide security guard services and their employees be licensed. Most provinces in Canada regulate the use of handcuffs and weapons (such as firearms and batons) by contract security companies and their employees, either banning such use completely or permitting it only under certain circumstances. Additionally, in some provinces, some terms, or variations of them, are prohibited either on a uniform or in self-reference.21

Canada’s federal laws also restrict the ability of security guards to be armed. For example, section 17 of the Firearms Act makes it an offense for any person, including a security guard, to possess prohibited or restricted firearms (i.e.

handguns) anywhere outside of his or her home. There are two exceptions to this prohibition found in sections 18 and 19 of the Act. Section 18 deals with transportation of firearms while Section 19 deals with allowing persons to carry such firearms on their persons to protect their lives or the lives of other persons, or for the performance of their occupation (Armour Car Guards, Licensed Trappers), provided an Authorization to Carry (ATC) is first obtained.22

British Columbia

Private security in the province of British Columbia is governed by two pieces of legislation: the Security Services Act23 and the Security Services Regulation.24 These laws are administered and enforced by the Security Programs and Police Technology Division25 of the Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General. The legislation requires that guards must be at least 19 years old, undergo a criminal background check, and successfully complete a training course.26 As far as weapons, British Columbia law severely restricts their use by security guards. Section 11(1)(c) of the Security Services Regulation prohibits security personnel from carrying or using any “item designed for debilitating or controlling a person or animal”, which the government interprets to include all weapons. As well, section 11 forbids private security from using or carrying restraints, such as handcuffs, unless authorized by the government. However, as in other parts of Canada, armoured car guards are permitted to carry firearms. In the past, only personnel that worked for contract security, that is, security companies, were regulated in British Columbia. However, as of September 1, 2009, in-house security guards and private investigators came under the jurisdiction of the Security Services Act and Security Services Regulation.

Bodyguards and bouncers, effective November 1, 2009, are also subject to these regulations.27


Security Guard - Wikipedia Security guard at 2015 Stockholm Pride Parade.

Armed private security are much rarer in Europe, and illegal in many countries, such as the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. In developing countries (with host country permission), an armed security force composed mostly of ex-military personnel is often used to protect corporate assets, particularly in war-torn regions. As a requirement of the Private Security Industry Act 2001, the UK now requires all contract security guards to have a valid Security Industry Authority license.28 The licence must be displayed when on duty, although a dispensation may be granted for store detectives, bodyguards and others who need to operate without being identified as a security guard. This dispensation is not available to Vehicle Immobilisers. Licenses are valid for three years and require the holders to undergo formal training, and are also to pass mandatory Criminal Records Bureau checks. Licences for Vehicle Immobilisers are valid for one year. Armed guarding and guarding with a weapon are illegal.

In Finland, all contract security officers are required to have a valid license granted by police. Temporary license is valid for four months and normal license for five years. License requires a minimum 40-hour course for temporary license and 60 hours more for a normal license. Additionally a narrow security vetting is required. The 40-hour course allows the carrying of a fixed-length baton and handcuffs, separate training and license is required for the security guard to carry pepper spray, extendable baton or a firearm. Rehearse of weapons usage is mandatory every year and is regulated by the Ministry of The Interior, to ensure the safe handling of pepper spray and such. Firearms can only be carried by bodyguards and cash-in-transit guards or when guarding a person or object that is significant in terms of public interest.29 In Finland, a security guard has the right to detain a person “red-handed”, or seen committing a crime and the right to search the detained individual for harmful items and weapons.

An individual who has been forcefully detained can only be released by the police. All companies providing security guarding services are also required to have a valid license from the Ministry of the Interior.30

In the Netherlands, security officers (beveiligingsbeambte) must undergo a criminal background check by the local police department in the area where the private security company is located. To become a security guard in the Netherlands, a person must complete the basic training level 2 Beveiliger2. To complete the training a trainee must undergo a three-month internship with a private security company that is licensed by the svpb, the board that controls security exams. A trainee guard must pass for his diploma within one year. If the trainee does not pass he is not allowed to work anymore until he completes his training with a positive result. After a positive result a new ID can be issued and is valid for three years, after which the guard must undergo a background check by the local police again. Security guards in the Netherlands are not allowed to carry any kind of weapon or handcuffs. Every uniformed security guard in the Netherlands must have the V symbol on his or her uniform to advise the public they are dealing with a private guard; this rule is mandated by the Ministry of Justice.

Security uniforms may not look like similar to police uniforms, and may not contain any kind of rank designation. The colors yellow and gold are not allowed to be used because the Dutch police uses gold accents in their uniforms; also, wearing a uniform cap is not longer allowed. Every new uniform design or addition must be approved by the Ministry of Justice before use. A patrol vehicle may not look like a police striped vehicle. The only private security guards who are allowed to carry firearms are those who work for the military or Dutch National bank (De Nederlandsche Bank); this is where the national gold reserve can be found.


In Norway security officers are called “Vektere”. There are two different types of vektere the normal uniformed or civil-clothing officers who watch over private and semi-public properties, and government-hired vektere who work in public places, such as the Parliament. The law provides more enforcement powers to security officers in the Parliament than to private security officers. Security officers must undergo three weeks of training and internship. They are allowed to work for six months after one week of the introduction course.

It is also possible to choose Security as a high school major, which requires two years of school and two years of trainee positions at private companies, resulting in a certificate from the government. This certificate makes it easier to get a job, with slightly higher pay. It also makes it easier to get a job elsewhere in the security industry. The certificate can also be obtained by private security officers who have had a minimum of 5 years working experience. No security officer may carry pepper spray, batons or any other kind of weapon. However, handcuffs may be used. Norges Bank (Bank of Norway, federal reserves) had armed government guards until late 2013, when they were disarmed by the minister of finance. Security officers serving on ships sailing in areas of high piracy risk may be equipped with firearms. Uniforms should not resemble police worn attire, but some uniforms do.

The uniform must have the text ‘VEKTER’ or ‘SIKKERHET’ above the left shirt pocket. A security officer, or any other person, may detain or arrest anyone that violates any law, as long as the violation carries a punishment of minimum six (6) months imprisonment and a fine. The detainee must be released or handed over to the authorities within 4 hours of the arrest. Security officers assigned to public transportation, such as trains, subways, trams and buses, also have some powers under the Transportloven (transportation law). Security officers may issue fixed penalty tickets for violation of parking regulations in designated areas and for passengers on public transportation without a valid pass. A security officer may only search (frisk) a person to prevent the use of or confiscate any type of weapon or anything that can be used as a weapon. In 2006 some security officers (Vakt Service/Nokas) were given extended training and limited police authority to transport prisoners between police holding cells, jails and courts, etc.

Due to an outcry from the police union, this program was scrapped after a few months. In addition to normal “vektere” there also is a special branch for “Ordensvakter” who normally work as bouncers or security at concerts and similar types of events. Ordensvakter have to undergo an extra week of training to learn techniques on how to handle drunk people and people on various drugs. They also learn about the alcohol laws of Norway (which are rather strict). The police in the local police district must approve each Ordensvakt. These special regulations arose after events in the 1990s when bouncers had a bad reputation, especially in Oslo, for being too brutal and rough with people. At that time, the police had no control over who worked as bouncers.

After the government implemented training and mandatory police-issued ID cards for bouncers the problems have been reduced. The police of Oslo report that Ordensvakter are now helping the police identify crimes that otherwise would not be reported. In 2013, due to a high number of rapes and violent robberies, the city of Oslo (Oslo Kommune) hired a private security company (Metro Garda) to patrol the downtown immigrant areas. This patrol had a positive effect, and the city has, in addition to Metro Garda officers, now hired their own officers called Bymilj etaten (City environment dep). The municipalities in Norway are not allowed to form their own “police”. The only police force in Norway is the federal police (politi). In 2007 several guards from the Securitas AB company were arrested for brutality against a robber they apprehended on the main street of Oslo.

The crime was captured with a mobile camera by pedestrians and created a public outcry, with many objecting to the way the security guards took the law into their own hands. Later, it came to light that the thief first attacked the security guards when they approached him, so the brutality charges were dropped.31 As a result of this episode, the police said that they would be more careful when conducting criminal background checks for security guards. Before 2007 security guards were checked when they applied for a job, but not while they were working. Security companies were also criticized for not checking criminal records sufficiently, in some cases not at all. Now guards working in private security must be checked annually. The police have the authority to withdraw a company’s licence if the company does not submit lists of employees to the police. The police in Norway were widely criticized for not checking guards properly, and even when they encounter an issue with a guard, the guard can still work for months before anything is done. The security company G4S, after being criticized by police for hiring criminals, stated that they cannot do anything about the problem, because only the police have the ability to check the guard’s criminal records.32

In 2012 Norwegian media reported that off-duty police officers and Home Guard soldiers had contracts of armed employment on civilian ships in the Aden bay, and police leaders were planning sanctions against the use of police officers.33 Today there are around 15,000 people working in private security in Norway. The police have around 10,000 employees in total.

Notable companies operating in Norway:

Hong Kong

Security Guard - Wikipedia Watchman on duty at a residential block in Hong Kong.

In Hong Kong, the term Security Officer refers to a senior staff member who supervises a team of security personnel. The staff who work under security officers’ supervision are called Security Guards.


Before 1 October 1996, private security personnel were regulated by the Watchmen Ordinance (Chapter 299). However, there were many problems with that system of regulation for example, there were no restrictions as to whom may establish private security service companies to provide security services to a client. Also, there was no regulation of people whom may perform installation of security systems. Some employers hired “caretakers” instead of security guards to avoid their responsibilities under the ordinance (in formal definition, “caretakers” are supposed to provide facilities management service, although security service, which provided to residential properties, takes some parts of facilities management service). As a result, the Hong Kong Government enacted a wholly new law, the Security and Guarding Services Ordinance (Chapter 460), to replace the Watchmen Ordinance.

According to the Security and Guarding Services Ordinance: No individual shall do, agree to do, or hold himself/herself out as doing, or as available to do, security work for another person unless he/she does so-

  • Under and in accordance with a permit; or
  • Otherwise than for reward.34

Security work means any of the following activities-

  • Guarding any property;
  • Guarding any person or place for the purpose of preventing or detecting the occurrence of any offence; (Replaced 25 of 2000 s.


  • Installing, maintaining or repairing a security device;
  • Designing for any particular premises or place a system incorporating a security device.

Security device means a device designed or adapted to be installed in any premises or place, except on or in a vehicle, for the purpose of detecting or recording- (Amended 25 of 2000 s.


  • The occurrence of any offence; or
  • The presence of an intruder or of an object that persons are, for reasons of security, not permitted to bring onto the premises or place or any other premises or place.35


Qualification for security guards vary from country to country. Different requirements have to be completed before applying for this job.

Hong Kong

Security Guard - Wikipedia A group of Hong Kong security guards in formation before going on duty

Any applicant who wishes to apply for a Security Personnel Permit (SPP) must:

  • He/she have been living in Hong Kong for at least 5 years. (This requirement may have been changed)
  • No criminal record.
  • At least 17 years old when submitting his/her application.
  • Have passed a mandatory 16-hour training course and have been granted a certificate of the course.
  • If the applicant is over 65 years old, he/she must submit his/her health examination report.


Security Personnel Permit was separated to four types: A, B, C, and D.

  • Type A permit holder was permitted to work in a “single-block” residential building; they are not allowed to carry firearms. No age limit.
  • Type B permit holder was permitted to work in any type of properties, but they also are not allowed carry firearms. The maximum age limit of this permit is 65.
  • Type C permit holder was permitted to work as an armed guard. (Usually, they are members of the cash transport car crew.) The maximum age limit of this permit is 55.
  • Type D permit holder was permitted to design, install, and repair security devices. No maximum age limit.

The permit is valid for five years. All holders must renew their permit before it expires, or they will lose their qualification to work, as such, until their permit is renewed.

The type A and Type B security service are gradually combined with property management service, though the boundary between these two industries is unclear.

Power of arrest

Security Guards in Hong Kong do not have special powers of arrest above that of the ordinary citizen, i.e. citizen’s arrest, also known locally as the “101 arrest power”. The Section 101 in the Criminal Procedure Ordinance addresses that arrest of an offender by a private citizen is allowed in certain circumstances if the offender is attempting an arrestable offense. Once arrested, the suspect must be delivered to a police office as soon as possible. An arrestable offence is defined as any crime carrying a sentence of more than 12 months imprisonment. No security personnel are allowed to search other person, nor are they allowed to get personal information from other people, with the exception of some specific circumstances.

Security Guard - Wikipedia Security personnel at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.


In Israel, almost all security guards carry a firearm, primarily to prevent revenge attacks or terror attacks. Security guards are common: they perform entrance checks at shopping malls, transportation terminals, government and other office buildings, and many stores. Many locations with a high number of visitors, such as the Jerusalem Central Bus Station, employ X-ray machines to check passenger’s bags; in other places, they are opened and visually inspected. Since 2009, private security guards companies as Mikud have also replaced official security forces at some checkpoints inside and on the border of the West Bank, as well as the crossings to Gaza.


The private security industry is regulated by the Ministry of Home Affairs (Kementerian Dalam Negeri). Starting in 2015, all private security companies in Malaysia must have a minimum of 30% of their employees complete a Certified Security Guard Training Course 36 in order to receive approval to renew their Private Agency License. Peninsular Malaysia allows for the use of Nepalese security guards whereby East Malaysian immigration policy does not allow the use of foreign workers to be in employed in the security industry.

Security Guard - Wikipedia Private security workers in Johannesburg during the 2010 World Cup.

South Africa

Main article: Private security industry in South Africa

Security guards along with the rest of the private security industry are regulated under Act 56 of 2001, Private Security Industry Regulation Act.37

United States

Private security guards have outnumbered police officers since the 1980s, predating the heightened concern about security brought on by the September 11, 2001, attacks. The more than 1 million contract security officers, and an equal number of guards estimated to work directly for U.S. corporations, is much greater than the nearly 700,000 sworn law enforcement officers in the United States.38 Most states require a license to work as a security officer.39 This license may include a criminal background check or mandated training requirements. Security guards have the same powers of arrest as a private citizen, called a “private person” arrest, “any person” arrest, or “citizen’s arrest“. If weapons are carried, additional permits and training are usually required. Armed security personnel are generally employed to protect sensitive sites such as government and military installations, armored money transports, casinos, banks and other financial institutions, and nuclear power plants. However, armed security is quickly becoming a standard for vehicle patrol officers and on many other non-government sites.

In some states, companies are developing technology to enhance private security. Using behavior analysis, computers can detect threats more quickly with fewer errors in judgement. Using specific algorithms, a computer can now detect aggressive and defensive body language, which triggers an alert to security or proper authorities depending on the event. These systems can also track slips and falls, theft and other events commonly experienced in corporate America.40 The responsibilities of security guards in the United States are expanding in scope.3 For example, a trend is the increasing use of private security to support services previously provided by police departments. James F. Pastor addresses substantive legal and public policy issues which directly or indirectly relate to the provision of security services. These can be demonstrated by the logic of alternative or supplemental service providers. The use of private police has particular appeal because property or business owners can directly contract for public safety services, thereby providing welcome relief for municipal budgets. Finally, private police functions can be flexible, depending upon the financial, organizational, political, and circumstances of the client.41

Arizona Licensed security companies are required to provide eight hours of pre-assignment training to all persons employed as security guards before the employee acts in the capacity of a security guard.42 There is a state-mandated curriculum that must be taught, and subjects covered must include criminal law and laws of arrest, uniforms and grooming, communications, use of force, general security procedures, crime scene preservation, ethics, and first response.43

Security Guard - Wikipedia An ADT Bel-Air Patrol vehicle

California Security Guards are required to obtain a license from the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services (BSIS), of the California Department of Consumer Affairs. Applicants must be at least 18 years old, undergo a criminal history background check through the California Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and complete a 40-hour course of required training.

This required training is broken down into smaller training sections and time-lines. The first is 8 hours of BSIS-designed instruction on powers to arrest and weapons. Then, within 30 days of getting the individual officers license, they must receive 16 hours of training on various mandatory and elective courses. Finally, within 6 months of getting their license, they must receive an additional 16 hours of training on various mandatory and elective courses. California security officers are also required to complete 8 hours of annual training on security-related topics, in addition to the initial 40 hours of training. The training and exam may be administered by any private patrol operator or by any of a large number of certified training facilities. This training can be in the classroom or online.4445

New Jersey As of 2006 all security personnel employed by a “security officer company” which provides security services to other entities by contract must undergo a state mandated certified training program.

This law, commonly referred to as SORA, is the state’s effort to increase the quality of security personnel. Security personnel employed by other types of businesses do not require the SORA certification card. However, those employed by the Atlantic City casinos are required to have the state issued “Casino Employee Registration” card.

New Mexico As of 2008 all security guards must undergo FBI background checks and a certified training program. Guards who carry firearms must also undergo additional training with a firearm through an approved firearms instructor and pass a psychological exam. The security industry is regulated through the New Mexico Regulation and Licensing Division.

North Carolina Security Officers in North Carolina are required to register and become certified with the Private Protective Services Board (PPSB), the private security authority body under the North Carolina Department of Justice. The purpose of the Private Protective Services Board is to administer the licensing, education and training requirements for persons, firms, associations and corporations engaged in private protective services within North Carolina. The board is totally fee funded and is staffed by departmental employees directed on a daily basis by the Director, who is appointed by the Attorney General. There are two classifications for an officer: armed and unarmed. While an unarmed officer is required to take a 16-hour class of training and instruction to become certified, an armed officer must take additional hours of classroom training as well as qualify on a gun range with the firearm which will be carried on duty.

Oklahoma Security officers in Oklahoma are licensed by CLEET (Council on Law Enforcement Education and Training).

To be licensed as an unarmed officer an individual must be at least 18 years of age and undergo 40 hours of classroom training and pass criminal history checks. Armed guards must be 21 years of age, have another 40 hours of classroom training, qualify with their firearm and pass a psychological evaluation.

Oregon Department of Public Safety, Standards and Training

Pennsylvania No licensing requirements to be an unarmed security guard. However, anyone who carried a firearm or other “lethal weapon” in the course and scope of their employment must be trained as a “Certified Agent” and successfully complete a 40-hour training course (including shooting range time) in order to be certified to carry weapons while on duty under the Lethal Weapons Training Act (commonly referred to as Act 235 certification). Certification involves completing a medical physical exam, a psychological examination, classroom training and qualifying on a pistol range, with firing of 50 rounds of ammo larger than a .380acp. Agents are also required to qualify on a shotgun. The certification is good for five years at which time an eight-hour refresher course must be taken or the certification is revoked. PA State Police Lethal Weapons Training Program

South Carolina All Security Officers have the same authority and power of arrest as Sheriff’s Deputies, while on the property they are paid to protect, and according to Attorney General Alan Wilson, are considered Law Enforcement for the purpose of making arrests and swearing out a warrant before the magistrate.46 Private Officers may respond to calls for service, make arrests and use blue lights47 and traffic radar. They may also be specially authorized by the State Law Enforcement Division (SLED) to issue Uniform Traffic Tickets to violators.48 Security Officers are licensed or registered (as appropriate) by SLED for one year at a time. Training for unarmed officers is 8 hours, an additional 8 hours is required for a security weapons permit or a concealed security weapons permit. Additional hours are required to be documented for officers issuing public or private tickets as well as officers who will be using batons, pepper spray or tasers.

Security Guard - Wikipedia A museum guard in 1935.

Virginia Since the 1980s, Security Officers in Virginia are required to be certified by DCJS (Department of Criminal Justice Services, the same agency that certifies law enforcement officers).49 To be certified as an unarmed security officer one must go through 18 hours of classroom training from a certified instructor in order to obtain this card and it must be done by the end of their 90 days after hire with a Security company.

Every two years the card must be renewed, by completing an in-service with a certified instructor. To be certified as an armed security officer one must complete an additional 24 hours of firearms training, 8 hours of training in conducting a lawful arrest, and qualification with the type and caliber of weapon they intend to carry. Firearms endorsements must be renewed annually by completing an in-service and passing a firearms qualification. Certified armed security officers are authorized under state code to arrest50 for any offense committed in their presence while they are on duty at the location they are hired to protect. Unarmed officers have no arrest powers. They also are granted the authority by the state law to issue summons to appear in court51 for felonies and misdemeanors. Virginia also allows security officers to attend additional 40 hours of training to become certified as Conservators of the Peace (Special Police) for the company employing them. This appointment is performed by a Circuit Court Judge, wherein the officer is actually sworn in and has the powers of a police officer on property they are working, as well as the lawful duty to act upon witnessing any felony and the ability to pursue fleeing felons. Such sworn officers are also permitted the use of sirens and red lights.

Those who handle K-9s, work as dispatchers, alarm responders, private investigators, instructors, bounty hunters, armored car couriers and Executive Protection Specialists are other categories of training regulated by DCJS with additional training requirements. All positions require State Police and FBI background checks.

St. Louis, Missouri Security officers are required to be licensed by the St. Louis County Police Department or St. Louis Police Department. St. Louis County security officer training is a two-day class and yearly renewal class. Armed officers must shoot bi-annually to keep their armed status. County license is called a Metropolitan License, meaning it is good for St. Louis City and County.52 The St.

Louis City web site has all the information regarding licensing requirements, as they are the same in the city and county.53

Texas There are three types of Security Officer license types in the state of Texas. Each requires a certain level of training. All training and licensing is regulated by the Department of Public Safety’s Private Security Bureau.54 The three types of licenses are

Non Commissioned Security Officer (Level II) A Non Commissioned Security Officer is unarmed and must wear a distinctive DPS approved uniform. The main purpose of this type of officer is the phrase most associated with security, Observe and Report. The Security Officer is generally there to be a good witness.
  • Required Training : Level II/Non Commissioned Officer requires 6 hours of classroom based training. This course may be taught by any licensed company directly to new hires. The Owner, Qualified Manager, or a designee of the Qualified Manager may teach the course. At the completion of the course the candidate must pass a multiple choice exam. There are no pre requisites to this course or license.55
  • Background Check: FBI background check and electronic fingerprint imaging
  • Renewal: Submission of renewal fee every two years.

    No required renewal course.

Commissioned Security Officer (Level III) Security Guard - Wikipedia A patrol vehicle use by Priority Protection & Investigations in Texas A Commissioned Security Officer openly carries a handgun 56 and may also carry a baton,57 chemical dispensing device (OC),58 Taser, etc. Commissioned Officers also must wear a distinct DPS approved uniform 59 and can at no time conceal their weapon while on duty and/or in uniform.60 The main purpose of this type of officer is to actively prevent and deter crime. Observe and report is now a secondary function and the officer is to actively protect the clients and property in accordance with clients procedures as well as state/federal law.
  • Required Training: Level III/Commissioned Officer requires a 40-hour Level III course. The training for this license consists of classroom based learning, defense tactics, handcuffing, and firearms training. At the completion of the course the candidate must pass a firearms proficiency test and a multiple choice exam. This license requires the previous Level II course to be completed first. This course may only be taught by a licensed Level III instructor working under a state licensed Level III security training school.61
  • Background Check: FBI background check and electronic fingerprint imaging
  • Renewal: Submission of renewal fee and proof of completion of a 6-hour re-qualification class taught by a Level III instructor under a Level III training school. The re-qualification course requires completion of a multiple choice exam and a firearms qualification. This is done every two years.
Personal Protection Officer (Level IV) A Personal Protection Officer (PPO) directly protects the life of their client.

PPO’s are the only license type able to wear plain clothes while working. PPO’s in plain clothes MUST conceal their firearm, and they are also the only license type able to conceal their firearm at all. The Level IV/Personal Protection Officer license is tied to the Level III/Commissioned Officer license. To issue a PPO license the PPO candidate must be applying for at the same time or have already received a Level III/ Commissioned Security Officer license. The Security Officer’s Level III and IV will also have the same expiration date regardless of date issued.

  • Required Training: Level IV/ Personal Protection Officer requires a 15 hours course teaching additional law, defense tactics, considerations for personal protection of a client, and OC training. This license requires the previous Level II and Level III courses to be completed first. This course may only be taught by a licensed Level IV instructor working under a state licensed Level IV security training school.62
  • Background Check: FBI background check and electronic fingerprint imaging
  • Psychological Testing: In addition to the training and background check a PPO must also submit an MMPI (psychological test) administered by a Texas licensed Psychologist.63
  • Renewal: Submission of renewal fee and a current Level III/ Commissioned Officer license or pending renewal of Level III/Commissioned Officer license.

New Orleans, Louisiana The City of New Orleans Department of Police in accordance with New Orleans Home Rule Charter section 4-502 (2) (a) (b) and New Orleans Municipal Code 17-271 MCS 90-86, deputizes armed Security Officers, Private Investigators, College Campus Police, City, State, and Federal agencies, within the city limits, with limited Police Power as New Orleans Police Special Officers. New Orleans Municipal Code 17-271 MCS 30-1122 states It shall be unlawful for any person to act as an armed guard unless he is a Peace Officer. Louisiana R.S.

40:1379.1 (b) states the Special Officer, when performing those tasks requiring a Special Officer’s commission, shall have the same powers and duties as a Peace Officer. Special Officers may make arrest for felony or misdemeanor offenses on the property or area they are to protect, patrol, or in relation to their direct assignment. The Special Officer when making an arrest may pat down the arrested subject for weapons.

Special Officers are to turn over arrested subjects and pertaining evidence to a New Orleans Police Officer. Special Officers or to honor all subpoenas on arrest made and appear in court to testify. Special Officers when not on a particular assignment are regarded as private citizens and have no Police Power. However, Special Officers still may make an arrest for a felony, whether in or out of his presence, while not on a particular assignment, under Louisiana Law CCRP art.214 Arrest by private person; when lawful.

Security officers and the police

Security personnel are not police officers, unless they are security police, but are often identified as such due to similar uniforms and behaviors, especially on private property. Security personnel derive their powers from state or provincial laws, which allow them a contractual arrangement with clients that give them Agent of the Owner powers. This includes a nearly unlimited power to question with the absence of probable cause requirements that frequently dog public law enforcement officers. In essence, security officers keep private property / persons safe from hazards, whereas police officers protect entire communities by enforcing laws and arresting suspected offenders. Some jurisdictions do commission or deputize security officers and give them limited additional powers, particularly when employed in protecting public property such as mass transit stations. This is a special case that is often unique to a particular jurisdiction or locale.

Additionally, security officers may also be called upon to act as an agent of law enforcement if a police officer, sheriff’s deputy, etc. is in immediate need of help and has no available backup. Some security officers do have reserve police powers and are typically employed directly by governmental agencies. Typically, these are sworn law enforcement personnel whose duties primarily involve the security of a government installation, and are also a special case. Other local and state governments occasionally enter into special contracts with security agencies to provide patrol services in public areas. These personnel are sometimes referred to as “private police officers”. Sometimes, police officers work as security personnel while not on duty.

This is usually done for extra income, and work is particularly done in hazardous jobs such as bodyguard work and bouncers outside nightclubs. Police are called in when a situation warrants a higher degree of authority to act upon reported observations that security does not have the authority to act upon. However, some states allow Licensed Security Officers full arrest powers equal to those of a Sheriff’s Deputy. In 1976, the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration‘s National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals reported:

‘One massive resource, filled with significant numbers of personnel, armed with a wide array of technology, and directed by professionals who have spent their entire adult lifetimes learning how to prevent and reduce crime, has not been tapped by governments in the fight against criminality. The private security industry, with over one million workers, sophisticated alarm systems and perimeter safeguards, armored trucks, sophisticated mini-computers, and thousands of highly skilled crime prevention experts, offers a potential for coping with crime that can not be equalled by any other remedy or approach…. Underutilized by police, all but ignored by prosecutors and the judiciary, and unknown to corrections officials, the private security professional may be the only person in this society who has the knowledge to effectively prevent crime.’64

In New York City, the Area Police/Private Security Liaison program was organized in 1986 by the NYPD commissioner and four former police chiefs working in the private security industry to promote mutual respect, cross-training, and sharing of crime-related information between public police and private security.



Private Security personnel initially outnumbered police. From the Australian Bureau of Statistics Report in 2006 there were 52,768 full-time security officers in the security industry compared to 44,898 police officers. But since Security Industry Regulation Act 2007 it has dropped to less than half that.


The trend in the UK at the time of writing (March 2008) is one of polarisation. The market in Manned Guarding (the security industry term for the security guards most people are familiar with) is diverging toward two opposite extremes; one typified by a highly trained and well paid security officer; the other with security officers on or about minimum wage with only the minimum training required by law. Within the “in-house” sector, where security personnel are not subject to licensing under the Private Security Industry Act 2001, the same divergence can be seen, with some companies opting for in-house security to maintain control of their standards, while others use it as a route to cheaper, non-regulated, security. In a very few cases, such as the Northern Ireland Security Guard Service, security guards may be attested as Special Constables.

United States

Economist Robert B. Reich, in his 1991 book The Work of Nations, stated that in the United States, the number of private security guards and officers was comparable to the number of publicly paid police officers. He used this phenomenon as an example of the general withdrawal of the affluent from existing communities where governments provide public services. Instead, the wealthy pay to provide their own premium services, through voluntary, exclusive associations. As taxpayer resistance has limited government budgets, and as the demand for secure homes in gated communities has grown, these trends have continued in the 1990s and 2000s (decade). In the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks, the trend in the US is one of a quiet transformation of the role of security guards into first responders in case of a terrorist attack or major disaster. This has resulted in longer guard instruction hours, extra training in terrorism tactics and increased laws governing private security companies in some states.


Security Guard - Wikipedia Standing Guard

The vigiles were soldiers assigned to guard the city of Rome, often credited as the origin of both security personnel and police, although their principal duty was as a fire brigade. There have been night watchmen since at least the Middle Ages in Europe; walled cities of ancient times also had watchmen. A special chair appeared in Europe sometime in the late Middle Ages, called the watchman’s chair; this unupholstered wooden chair had a forward slanting seat to prevent the watchman from dozing off during duty.

Notable individuals

  • The security guard Frank Wills detected the June 17, 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., ultimately leading to the resignation of Richard M. Nixon as President of the United States.
  • Christoph Meili, night guard at a Swiss bank, became a whistle blower in 1997. He told about the bank destroying records related to funds of Holocaust victims, whose money the bank was supposed to return to their heirs.
  • In 1999, Pierlucio Tinazzi rescued 10 victims from the Mont Blanc Tunnel Fire, before dying while trying to rescue an eleventh.
  • In 2001, Gary Coleman, former child actor, was employed as an armed security officer, with permits valid for both Firearm and Baton through the Bureau of Security and Investigative Services of California in the Los Angeles area. While shopping for a bullet-resistant vest for his job, Coleman assaulted a female autograph collector. Coleman said he felt “threatened by her insistence” and punched her in the head.65 He was later charged for the assault and ordered to pay her $1,665 for hospital bills.

    This also ended up getting his guard card and firearms permits revoked, however his baton permit is still valid until the year 2045. It is unknown why the other two permits were revoked but his baton permit remains. He is not allowed to carry the baton while he is not physically working as a security officer. (Firearms and baton permits issued through BSIS are open carry permits, and you are required to be in uniform, and at work, on your way to or from work to carry them otherwise a separate permit must be issued by the county in California that the individual resides to carry said item off duty.)

  • Derrick Brun, an unarmed security officer employed by the Red Lake School District in Minnesota, was praised by President Bush for his heroic role in protecting children during the 2005 Red Lake shootings: “Derrick’s bravery cost him his life, and all Americans honor him”.6667
  • Armed security officer Jeanne Assam. In 2007, Matthew Murray fatally shot two and wounded two others at the Youth With A Mission retreat center in Arvada, Colorado. A few hours later he fatally shot two others and wounded another three in the New Life Church parking lot. When Murray entered the church, he was met by armed security officer Jeanne Assam, who ordered him to drop his weapon. Assam shot and wounded Murray when he failed to comply. The pastor of New Life Church credited Assam with saving over 100 lives.
  • Richard Jewell, a security officer at Atlanta, Georgia‘s Centennial Olympic Park during the 1996 Summer Olympics who was wrongly accused of the Centennial Olympic Park bombing. Jewell was later cleared of those charges, and was in fact the one who saved hundreds of lives when he first noticed the suspicious package and got the area evacuated.

    Jewell later successfully sued several news agencies who reported him as the criminal prior to having the facts.



Many security guards in Canada are unionized. The primary unions which represent security guards in Canada are the United Food and Commercial Workers (UFCW),68 Local 333, and the Canadian branch of the United Steelworkers (USW). In contrast to the legal restrictions in the United States, Canadian labour relations boards will certify bargaining units of security guards for a Canadian Labour Congress (CLC)-affiliated union or in the same union with other classifications of employees.

United States

In June 1947, the United States Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act placing many restrictions on labor unions. Section 9 (B) (3) of the act prevents the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) from certifying for collective bargaining any unit which mixes security employees with non-security employees. This restricts the ability of security employees to join any union that also represents other types of employees. They may be part of an independent, “security-only” union, not affiliated with any coalition of other types of labor unions such as the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO). A union which also represents non-security employees may also represent and bargain on behalf of security employees with the employer’s consent. Two of the largest security unions are the Security, Police, and Fire Professionals of America (SPFPA) and the United Government Security Officers of America (UGSOA).

Security, Police, and Fire Professionals of America

In 1948 with the Taft-Hartley restrictions well into effect, the Detroit, Michigan area security guards of United Auto Workers (UAW) Amalgamated Local 114 were forced to break away and start a separate “Plant Guards Organizing Committee”. The NLRB ruled that as an affiliate of the CIO, the committee was indirectly affiliated with production unions and therefore ineligible for certification under the new restrictions. The committee was then forced to completely withdraw from the CIO and start the independent United Plant Guard Workers of America. By the 1990s, this union had evolved to include many other types of security officers and changed its name to the SPFPA.

United Government Security Officers of America

In 1992, the UGSOA was formed. It specializes in organizing federal, state, and local government security officers, but since May, 2000 has been open to representing other types of security personnel as well.


The Service Employees International Union (SEIU) has also sought to represent security employees, although its efforts have been complicated by the Taft-Harley Act because the SEIU also represents janitors, trash collectors, and other building service employees.

See also


  1. ^ “Security Officer’s Brotherhood (Facebook group)”. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  2. ^ “Power to Arrest Training Manual – California Bureau of Security and Investigative Services” (PDF). Retrieved 2010-03-25.
  3. ^ a b c
  4. ^ “Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition”.

    2009-12-17. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  5. ^ “Morse Watchmans | Products | PowerCheck”.

    Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  6. ^ Kator, Zabi. “Scheduler”. guardNOW. guardNOW Security Services. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  7. ^ Kator, Zabi. “Security Human Resources Manager”. website. guardNOW Security Services. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  8. ^ Kator, Zabi. “Security Client Services Manager”. website. guardNOW Security Services. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  9. ^ Kator, Zabi. “Security Client Services supervisor”. website. guardNOW Security Services. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
  10. ^ Rigakos, George (2002). The New Parapolice: Risk Markets and the Commodification of Social Control.

    Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

  11. ^ McLeod, Ross (2004). Parapolice: A Revolution in the Business of Law Enforcement. Toronto: Boheme Press.
  12. ^ Button, Mark (2007). Security Officers and Policing: Powers, Culture and Control in the Governance of Private Space. Aldershot:
  13. ^ “Private Security and Investigative Services Act, 2005, S.O.

    2005, c.


    2009-12-15. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  14. ^
  15. ^ Robertson, Brian (2008-05-28). “Province’s Bill 10 makes “security officer” a punishable phrase”. Canadian Security. CLB MEDIA INC. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
  16. ^,
  17. ^ “security guard services guide”. Retrieved 2007-12-06.
  18. ^ “City of Ceres, California, Chief de Werk’s Weekly Article”.

    2007-08-01. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  19. ^
  20. ^ Government of Ontario, Canada. “Licences and Forms”. Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services. Government of Ontario.

    Retrieved 2007-09-03.

  21. ^ Government of Ontario, Canada. “Licences and Forms”. Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services. Government of Ontario. Retrieved 2007-09-03.
  22. ^ Government of Alberta, Canada. “Licences and Forms”. Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services Alberta. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2012-09-03.
  23. ^ “Security Services Act”. Security Guards in Canada.
  24. ^ “Security Services Regulation”. Government of British Columbia. Retrieved 2009-03-12.
  25. ^ “Security Programs and Police Technology Division”. British Columbia Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General.

    Retrieved 2009-03-12.

  26. ^ “JIBC | Police Academy | Security Training – BST1 BST2”.

    2008-09-01. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  27. ^ “News and Updates”. British Columbia Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
  28. ^ “SIA website”.

    2009-11-26. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  29. ^ “Private Security Services Act” (PDF). Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  30. ^ “Ministry of the Interior unit for supervision of the private security industry”. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
  31. ^ “F r ingen konsekvenser for vekterne”.

    Retrieved 2007-12-14.

  32. ^
  33. ^ “Private sikkerheitsselskap leiger ut heimevernssoldatar og politimenn som v pna vakter p norske skip. Politiet planlegg sanksjonar, medan Heimevernet ikkje greier stoppe tilstr yminga” (in Norwegian).
  34. ^ “Security and Guarding Services Ordinance – Sect 10 Restrictions on doing security work”. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
  35. ^ “Security and Guarding Services Ordinance – Sect 2 Interpretation”.

    1997-06-30. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  36. ^ “Surat Latihan CSG, Certified Security Guard (CSG) Training” (PDF). Kementerian Dalam Negeri. Retrieved 2014-12-23.
  37. ^ “Act 56 of 2001, Private Security Industry Regulation Act”. South African Government. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
  38. ^ Goldstein, Amy (2010-08-23). “More security firms getting police powers / Some see benefits to public safety, but others are wary”. The San Francisco Chronicle.
  39. ^ “Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers”.

    2009-12-17. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  40. ^
  41. ^ Pastor, James F. (2003). The Privatization of Police In America: An Analysis and Case Study. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1574-8.
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^ “New Security Guard Training Regulation – Bureau of Security and Investigative Services”. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
  45. ^ “Security Guard Fact Sheet – Bureau of Security and Investigative Services”.

    2007-03-23. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  46. ^ South Carolina Code of Laws, Title 40,Chapter 18
  47. ^ South Carolina Code of Laws, Title 56,Chapter 5 Section 170
  48. ^ South Carolina, Attorney General’s Opinion: Aug 01,1978 Apr 30, 1987 May 23, 1995 Aug 30, 2001 Oct 15, 2004 and State V. Brant (S.C.1982) 278 S.C.

    188,293 SE2d 703

  49. ^ “Legislative Information System”.

    2003-01-01. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  50. ^ “Legislative Information System”. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
  51. ^ “LIS > Code of Virginia > 19.2-74”.

    Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  52. ^ “Division of Operational Support Services”.

    2001-09-11. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  53. ^ “SLMPD Private Security”.

    2009-09-01. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  54. ^ “Texas Occupations Code”. Texas Legislature.
  55. ^ “Texas Administrative Rules Section 35.041(a)(1)” (PDF). Texas Private Security Bureau.
  56. ^ “Texas Administrative Code 1702.169(1)”. Texas Legislature.
  57. ^ “Texas Penal Code 46.15(b)(4)”. Texas Legislature.
  58. ^ “Texas Penal Code 46.05(f)”.

    Texas Legislature.

  59. ^ “Texas Administrative Code 1702.169(2)”. Texas Legislature.
  60. ^ “Texas Administrative Code 1702.169(3)”. Texas Legislature.
  61. ^ “Texas Administrative Rules Section 35.041(a)(2)” (PDF). Texas Private Security Bureau.
  62. ^ “Texas Administrative Rules Section 35.041(a)(3)” (PDF). Texas Private Security Bureau.
  63. ^ “Texas Administrative Rules Section 35.91(a)(5)” (PDF). Texas Private Security Bureau.
  64. ^ National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals (NAC-CJSG) (1976). “Private Security: Report of the Task Force on Private Security”. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Assistance Administration.
  65. ^ “court TV becomes truTV”.

    Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  66. ^ “President’s Radio Address”.

    2005-03-26. Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  67. ^ “Welcome to”.

    Retrieved 2010-03-25.

  68. ^ About UFCW Canada

External links

Security Guard - Wikipedia Retrieved from “

Reform Surveillance – Official Site

Reform Government Surveillance

Global Government Surveillance Reform

The undersigned companies believe that it is time for the world s governments to address the practices and laws regulating government surveillance of individuals and access to their information. While the undersigned companies understand that governments need to take action to protect their citizens safety and security, we strongly believe that current laws and practices need to be reformed. Consistent with established global norms of free expression and privacy and with the goals of ensuring that government law enforcement and intelligence efforts are rule-bound, narrowly tailored, transparent, and subject to oversight, we hereby call on governments to endorse the following principles and enact reforms that would put these principles into action.

The Principles

  1. 1

    Limiting Governments Authority to Collect Users Information

    Governments should codify sensible limitations on their ability to compel service providers to disclose user data that balance their need for the data in limited circumstances, users reasonable privacy interests, and the impact on trust in the Internet. In addition, governments should limit surveillance to specific, known users for lawful purposes, and should not undertake bulk data collection of Internet communications.

  2. 2

    and Accountability

    Intelligence agencies seeking to collect or compel the production of information should do so under a clear legal framework in which executive powers are subject to strong checks and balances. Reviewing courts should be independent and include an adversarial process, and governments should allow important rulings of law to be made public in a timely manner so that the courts are accountable to an informed citizenry.

  3. 3

    Transparency About Government Demands

    Transparency is essential to a debate over governments surveillance powers and the scope of programs that are administered under those powers. Governments should allow companies to publish the number and nature of government demands for user information. In addition, governments should also promptly disclose this data publicly.

  4. 4

    Respecting the Free Flow of Information

    The ability of data to flow or be accessed across borders is essential to a robust 21st century global economy. Governments should permit the transfer of data and should not inhibit access by companies or individuals to lawfully available information that is stored outside of the country. Governments should not require service providers to locate infrastructure within a country s borders or operate locally.

  5. 5

    Avoiding Conflicts Among Governments

    In order to avoid conflicting laws, there should be a robust, principled, and transparent framework to govern lawful requests for data across jurisdictions, such as improved mutual legal assistance treaty or MLAT processes. Where the laws of one jurisdiction conflict with the laws of another, it is incumbent upon governments to work together to resolve the conflict.

Voices For Reform

AOL is committed to preserving the privacy of our customers information, while respecting the right of governments to request information on specific users for lawful purposes. AOL is proud to unite with other leading Internet companies to advocate on behalf of our consumers. Tim Armstrong, Chairman and CEO, AOL Reports about government surveillance have shown there is a real need for greater disclosure and new limits on how governments collect information. The US government should take this opportunity to lead this reform effort and make things right. Mark Zuckerberg, CEO, Facebook The security of users data is critical, which is why we ve invested so much in encryption and fight for transparency around government requests for information. This is undermined by the apparent wholesale collection of data, in secret and without independent oversight, by many governments around the world. It s time for reform and we urge the US government to lead the way. Larry Page, CEO, Google These principles embody LinkedIn s fundamental commitment to transparency and ensuring appropriate government practices that are respectful of our members expectations. Erika Rottenberg, General Counsel, LinkedIn People won t use technology they don t trust. Governments have put this trust at risk, and governments need to help restore it. Brad Smith, General Counsel and Executive Vice President, Legal and Corporate Affairs, Microsoft Twitter is committed to defending and protecting the voice of our users. Unchecked, undisclosed government surveillance inhibits the free flow of information and restricts their voice. The principles we advance today would reform the current system to appropriately balance the needs of security and privacy while safeguarding the essential human right of free expression. Dick Costolo, CEO, Twitter Protecting the privacy of our users is incredibly important to Yahoo.

Recent revelations about government surveillance activities have shaken the trust of our users, and it is time for the United States government to act to restore the confidence of citizens around the world. Today we join our colleagues in the tech industry calling on the United States Congress to change surveillance laws in order to ensure transparency and accountability for government actions. Marissa Mayer, CEO, Yahoo

May 19, 2015

Dear Members of the Senate,

Later this week the Senate has an opportunity to pass meaningful and balanced surveillance reform by considering the bipartisan USA Freedom Act. The bill overwhelmingly passed the House with 338 votes. Members from across the political spectrum supported it. Delaying action on reform by extending expiring authorities for two months or any extended period of time would be a missed opportunity. The USA Freedom Act prevents the bulk collection of Internet metadata under various authorities. The bill allows for transparency about government demands for user information from technology companies and assures that the appropriate oversight and accountability mechanisms are in place.

Our companies came together two years ago to push for essential reforms that are necessary to protect national security, strengthen civil liberties, reaffirm user trust in the Internet, and promote innovation. The Senate can begin delivering on those reforms by passing the USA Freedom Act. Sincerely,

Reform Government Surveillance

RGS Statement In Support of Bipartisan, Bicameral FISA Reform Legislation

Statement of Reform Government Surveillance:

Reform Government Surveillance commends the introduction of surveillance reform legislation today in the House and the Senate. We support the bicameral, bipartisan legislation, which ends existing bulk collection practices under the USA Patriot Act and increases transparency and accountability while also protecting U.S. national security.

We thank Representatives Goodlatte, Sensenbrenner, Conyers and Nadler and Senators Lee, Leahy, Heller, and Franken, as well as other Members, who have worked hard over the past several months to draft a common sense bill that addresses the concerns of industry, the Intelligence Community, and civil society in a constructive and balanced manner. We look forward to working with Congress to pass this legislation by June 1st.

An open letter to Washington

December 2013

Dear Mr. President and Members of Congress,

We understand that governments have a duty to protect their citizens. But this summer s revelations highlighted the urgent need to reform government surveillance practices worldwide. The balance in many countries has tipped too far in favor of the state and away from the rights of the individual rights that are enshrined in our Constitution. This undermines the freedoms we all cherish. It s time for a change.

For our part, we are focused on keeping users data secure deploying the latest encryption technology to prevent unauthorized surveillance on our networks and by pushing back on government requests to ensure that they are legal and reasonable in scope. We urge the US to take the lead and make reforms that ensure that government surveillance efforts are clearly restricted by law, proportionate to the risks, transparent and subject to independent oversight. To see the full set of principles we support, visit ReformGovernmentSurveillance.com1


AOL, Apple, Facebook, Google, LinkedIn, Microsoft, Twitter, Yahoo

2014 – 2015.

All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.


  1. ^ (

Property for Sale in Deopham Road, Morley St.

Botolph …

Property type Any price

Price to Max price

2016 has been a boom year for state snooping laws here s how to fight back

2016 Has Been A Boom Year For State Snooping Laws   Here  S How To Fight Back

In 2016 internet privacy has experienced a string of shocks and abuses around the world starting with the Polish law that loosened spying restrictions for police and ending the year with the UK s controversial Investigatory Powers Bill, Rule 41 in the US and the TOR network s blocking in Belarus. Restricting internet privacy and interfering with people s lives by mass surveillance techniques brings fear to the society and dramatically increases the likelihood of criminal activity by giving new easy tools to access people s data not only to governments, but to whoever is able to hack, intercept or otherwise manipulate the new surveillance systems. Below is our review of the year in online privacy, and some suggestions about how people can protect themselves online.

In Germany , the new data retention act requires public telecommunication and internet providers to retain various call detail records (CDRs). These include phone numbers, the date and time of phone calls and texts, the content of text messages, and for mobile calls the locations of call participants. In addition, Internet providers are required to store user metadata such as IP addresses, port numbers, and the date and time of Internet access. Poland s law expands government access to digital data and loosens restrictions on police spying. Collected metadata will be kept for up to twoyears. One doesn t have to be an official suspect to be placed under surveillance for up to 18 months. In addition, the person being monitored will not be informed about it, compromising the protection of journalists sources and deterring potential whistleblowers. On 7 July, Russian president Vladimir Putin signed into Russian law several bills designed to help the government take measures against dissent online and demand unprecedented levels of data retention from the country s telecom companies. For instance, the legislation warrants tougher sentencing for online commentary deemed as an incitement to hatred or a violation of human dignity.

Such convictions now carry a minimum prison sentence of two years. The law requires service providers to monitor and store all calls, texts, chats and web browsing activity. The retained data can be accessed by several government agencies without a warrant. The UK s Investigatory Powers Act received the royal assent on 29 November, opening up the gate for a disturbingly intrusive surveillance system. Among other things, the so-called Snoopers Charter gives the state the ability to indiscriminately hack, intercept, record, and monitor the communications and Internet use of all of the UK population. The entire browsing history of every resident of the UK will be stored for one year. Almost 50 police forces and government departments, ranging from the Metropolitan Police Service and GCHQ to the Food Standards Agency are authorized to access the data In the US , a new amendment to the Rule 41 of the US Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure quietly went into effect on 1 December. It allows the FBI to secretly use malware to hack into thousands of computers with one warrant. There is no need to identify specific computers to be searched.

That means FBI can hack into as many computers as they wish, whether their owners are suspected of some criminal activity or not. New surveillance laws have also been passed and/or enacted in Belarus, China, Turkey, Ethiopia and elsewhere this year. For detailed information, visit our extensive coverage on those laws in our recent ‘2016 Privacy Review blog post. Dangers of surveillance states Citizen control and surveillance, especially suspicionless surveillance, whether physical or digital, has not proved to be an effective way to control criminal activity history tells us it has always turned out to be counter-productive, endangering lives and causing fear and insecurity. For example, when the government opens a backdoor to citizen s data, it means that this backdoor could potentially be used by anyone else, and can fall into the hands of hackers. Once the information is in the wrong hands, it can be used to steal people s identities and rob them of their bank accounts, for example. Data can also get misplaced, systems can crash and everyone can get endangered. Solution There are solutions to bypass some of these restrictive laws, the most reliable being a VPN service . A VPN sends your data through a securely encrypted tunnel before accessing the Internet this protects any sensitive information about your location by hiding your IP address.

Connecting through a VPN tunnel hides your online activity from your Internet service provider (ISP). The only information visible to the ISP is that you are connected to a VPN server, while all other information is encrypted by the VPN s protocol. This prevents ISPs from collecting potentially sensitive data and passing it onto any third parties. It s also important to use a VPN service that does not store activity records to ensure your data is not logged and forwarded to any agencies. NordVPN has a strict no-log policy and could not supply any information on your online activities even if requested. Besides VPNs, it s also crucial to use anti-spyware software, to make sure to use a Firewall, not to install unapproved programs on the computer that might contain bugs, and to be generally vigilant about the kind of information one shares and opens online. Download: The Video Surveillance Report 2016 This exclusive report covers the security needs of surveillance systems as shaped by the physical environment including: What do security professionals think about plug-and-play systems Challenges like low-light conditions or large spaces and the threats posed in various sectors Which cutting-edge features such as mobile access, PTZ smart controls or 4K resolution are most important to security professionals What are the most important factors driving upgrades and would end users consider an upgrade to HD analogue Download the full report here.

5 alarming terror trends and what they mean for counter-terror strategies

5 Alarming Terror Trends And What They Mean For Counter-terror Strategies

With Counter Terror Awareness Week upon us (courtesy of the National Counter Terrorism Security Office), we ve examined the latest trends in terror tactics and the changing nature of the amorphous global threat. For what they lack in resources compared to the states against which they pit themselves, terrorists must compensate with the element of surprise. Small wonder that terrorists who don t all take the same master s degree in how to be a terrorist aren t consistent in methods or targets, although trends do emerge as successful attacks inspire copycat plots.

Some attacks are more imaginative than others, often in inverse relation to the devastation caused. Being unpredictable is all too easy when potential targets are almost limitless, given that Islamic extremists essentially view society as a whole as the enemy. Any target any people (Muslims included), buildings or other infrastructure is fair game. When they re happy to sacrifice themselves too then they re not even constrained by the need of an escape route. Here are five trends in terrorism that have become apparent this year and the implications for counter-terror approaches. Wildfires in Israel Israel has been hit by a rash of wildfires since last Monday and several Israeli politicians including the Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu are proclaiming it a new terror tactic. This a major wave of arson Terrorism in every sense of the word, Naftali Bennett, leader of the Jewish Home party in the government said, according to Israeli media. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said that any fire caused by arson or incitement to arson is terrorism in every sense of the word, and we will treat it as such. Israeli police have arrested several Arabs on suspicion of arson.

Israel s Defense Minister Avigdor Lieberman says authorities have evidence that at least 17 cases of the 110 recorded outbreaks of fires, which have destroyed hundreds of homes and causing millions of dollars of damage were attributable to arson. Whether the arson if it even is arson can be defined properly as terror attacks, we don t know that would largely depend on the motives. Either way, I does alert security services within and beyond Israel to the prospect of a new form of environmental sabotage. Though terrorists favour major human casualties as it provides them a bigger psychological impact, train stations, shopping centres, sports stadia are well guarded, monitored by CCTV and so on. Forests, woods, agricultural holdings, on the other hand, would represent the soft underbelly. And while deaths from wildfires are rare and such attacks would lack the dramatic instant impact of a bomb or gun rampage, they are immensely destructive. Israeli health authorities said more than a hundred people had been treated for smoke inhalation and other injuries across the country, while Some 75,000 residents of Haifa were evacuated as whole neighborhoods were hit by the blazes. Should this prove to be a problem, it s hardly practical to guard every inch of the forest with people or cameras. More innovative solutions would be needed.

Far-right threat Pointing to our Burkean preference for evolution over revolution British thinkers have often considered their country to be better insulated against extreme ideologies of the left and right that convulsed continental Europe through the 30s and 40s. However, a rise in hate crime in the wake of the Brexit vote, the victory of Donald Trump and the brutal murder of a sitting MP generated anxiety that the far-right threat is being grossly underestimated. Over the past 12 months, there have been indications that the threat from the extreme right wing could be increasing and we are alive to this, Neil Basu, senior national coordinator for counter-terrorism policing and deputy assistant commissioner, said this week. Anti-radicalisation scheme Prevent has reported a 73.5% rise in the last year in the number of referrals linked to the far right. Currently just under 10% of all Prevent referrals relate to the extreme right wing, and we have put programmes in place to support those at risk of being radicalised, said Basu. Last week jurors at the Old Bailey heard how Thomas Mair, who was sentenced to a whole-life term for the murder of Labour MP Jo Cox, was an avid reader of Nazi propaganda and a regular visitor to neo Nazi websites. Mair shot and stabbed the 41-year-old mother of two as she arrived for a constituency surgery in Birstall, West Yorkshire. Nevertheless, Basu insisted that The overriding threat remains from Daesh-inspired groups. Internet of Things No household or everyday object, however mundane, is safe from the digital revolution.

Whether most people truly want a smart toaster, smart clothing or a smart toothbrush remains to be seen, but it s clear that the number of things being connected to computer networks is growing exponentially. And this applies just as much to buildings and the urban environment around us. From trains to shopping centres, data is being generated in ever greater volumes with huge potential for energy saving, easing congestion and generally making cities more effiecient and our lives easier. It s also multiplying the vectors of attack for cyber terrorists and we re ill prepared for it, according to Advent IM founder Mike Gillespie. If you ve got a CCTV system going back 10 or 15 years, how old is the security management software controlling it? We re patching IT systems on a weekly basis for Windows-based vulnerabilities. We re seeing firmware vulnerabilities discovered on a daily if not hourly basis. Yet how much of our security system is being maintained in a secure manner? We re trying to plug holes because the planning wasn t in place for the new cyber landscape that we ve entered.

And with the internet of things, the pace of change is getting faster and faster. embedded content Vehicular attack When Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel drove a HGV truck through the crowds celebrating Bastille Day in Nice, France on 14 July 2016, it demonstrated brutally that vehicles can be every bit as destructive as bullets and bombs. Leaving 86 dead and injuring 434, it tragically highlighted the need for robust physical barriers in public spaces. Naturally, people don t want to feel like they re surrounded by a militarised ring of steel, so the challenge for authorities is to make crowded public spaces harder to encroach by vehicles without ruining the appeal that draws people to plazas and the like in the first place. The growing importance of aesthetically pleasing crash tested street furniture forms the subject of a Marshalls-sponsored trend report we re publishing soon. Self-starter terror cells Intelligence services always had a tough job on their hands discovering terror plots before they happened. Identifying communications and links between Al Qaeda central command in so far as a diffuse network even had a central command and terror cells was a tricky job. Things got tougher still following the spate of attacks in France and Germany, however, as it signalled a new kind of terrorist. If the Al Qaeda model was like a franchise then these attacks were simply homages to the central idea of ISIS.

Recognising the power of their ideology ISIS effectively encouraged sympathisers within Europe to become self-starters no need for contact with, or direction from, ISIS HQ at all.

Download: The Video Surveillance Report 2016 This exclusive report covers the security needs of surveillance systems as shaped by the physical environment including: What do security professionals think about plug-and-play systems Challenges like low-light conditions or large spaces and the threats posed in various sectors Which cutting-edge features such as mobile access, PTZ smart controls or 4K resolution are most important to security professionals What are the most important factors driving upgrades and would end users consider an upgrade to HD analogue Download the full report here.