A comprehensive home security system guide for the elderly

Elderly people and technology are rarely associated with one another, but when it comes to safety and security, modern technology has a great deal to offer. Considering robbery, assault and other crimes against seniors are most likely to occur in or near the home, a comprehensive home security system is particularly important for seniors. A home security system represents an investment in the safety and well-being of your elderly loved ones, and it s important to make sure you re getting the protection they need to be safe at home.

To that end, let s take a look at the most popular home security products for seniors and how they work to keep your loved ones protected. Security cameras In surveys conducted among convicted burglars, more than half admit that they deliberately avoid any home that s equipped with one or more security cameras. That alone is reason enough to consider installing a surveillance system. But the usefulness of security cameras extends well beyond that. Cameras equipped with real-time monitoring also allow elderly homeowners to stay aware of their surroundings, providing much-needed peace of mind and ensuring that they need not leave the house to investigate a suspicious noise or identify a person on their property. Best of all, many smart cameras can even be remotely monitored, allowing you or your family to keep tabs on your loved one and their home no matter where you are. Medical alert systems A medical alert system is a great way to monitor your elderly loved one s health and provide a safeguard in the event of a health emergency, but some systems may offer an added layer of security as well. Many such systems feature pendants or wristbands equipped with buttons that immediately trigger an alarm and request assistance. Though they re designed primarily for medical emergencies, the fact that these systems are constantly monitored and connected with local authorities means help is never more than a button-press away.

Some systems also employ impact sensors that detect when the wearer may have fallen. Home automation Though you may not associate it with home security, smart home automation technology offers a number of ways to keep your loved ones safe. Installing programmable smart locks on doors and windows means your elderly family member never has to worry about remembering to lock up at night or when leaving the home. Many smart locks can also be monitored and controlled remotely from a mobile device. For another layer of security, smart lighting both indoors and outdoors can be programmed or triggered via motion sensors to provide effective deterrence. Remote control access Whether your elderly loved one is a frequent traveler or simply has trouble getting around like they used to, the ability to remotely control various aspects of the home is invaluable. Many modern home security and automation systems can be monitored and controlled via mobile devices, putting everything from video cameras to door locks to window shades just a few taps away. This easy and convenient access means that seniors can take care of many of their normal tasks around the home no matter where they might be. Doorbell cameras A doorbell may not strike you as the ultimate crime-stopping device, but there s a surprising statistic you should consider.

The Los Angeles Police Department recently conducted a study comparing two local neighborhoods one in which homes were equipped with smart doorbell cameras and one in which they weren t. The results? The neighborhood with doorbell cameras saw a stunning 50 percent drop in burglaries. That alone makes a compelling case, but doorbell cameras also protect seniors by ensuring that they need not open up to see who s standing at the door. Most doorbells also offer remote monitoring, so seniors can keep an eye on visitors from virtually anywhere. Alarm systems True home security requires accounting for all manner of potential threats, and this includes things like fire, carbon monoxide and attempted access by an intruder. Fortunately, many home security systems are designed with these threats in mind, providing a range of detectors and alarms to help alert elderly homeowners and give them time to respond appropriately. Ideally, fire and carbon monoxide alarms should be loud enough to alert others nearby in the event that your elderly loved one can t hear the alarm or isn t able to respond on their own. To guard against intruders, motion sensors on doors and windows can trigger alarms in the event of any unexpected activity.

Energy management Staying safe at home doesn t need to be costly. In fact, many home security systems include energy management tools that can actually help you save some cash each month. One popular inclusion is energy monitoring, which allows elderly homeowners to see exactly where their energy dollars are being spent and may even offer suggestions on ways to cut costs. Another energy management solution is a smart thermostat system, which enables programmable settings, activity monitors and other tools to ensure that heating and cooling is done as efficiently as possible without sacrificing comfort. It s no secret that seniors are among the most vulnerable members of society, but that doesn t mean that they can t live safely and securely at home. If you have an elderly loved one living independently, a comprehensive home security system built with their needs in mind is a wise investment. Armed with this knowledge, you can help them choose a solution that will make their lives easier and allow them to feel confident and secure in their home. See here for a directory of home automation companies, products and services About the author: Maricel Tabalba is a freelance writer who is interested in writing about smart gadgets, emerging tech trends and environmentally friendly advice. She earned her Bachelor of Arts in English with a minor in Communication from the University of Illinois at Chicago.

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Why home security systems are worth the investment

With inflation outstripping wage growth, most of us are trying harder to find ways to save money. We might cut down electricity usage and avoid unnecessary expenses. Perhaps, you consider a home security system as a luxury you can t afford.

However, when the well-being and safety of your loved ones are so important to you, you might consider a reliable home security system as a valuable investment especially when it can lower your insurance premiums and actually save you money. We ve prepared a list of this and other advantages to installing a good security system. Peace of mind It is undeniable that we live in a dangerous world. In Australia alone where I live there are more than 200,000 burglaries every year. According to the Australian Institute of Criminology, 20% of burglary victims will have their homes broken into more than once. If this happens to your family, it can take a long time to recover from the trauma. Burglars are finding ingenious ways to steal cars without even entering the house, making security gates a worthwhile investment And it s a similar story in the UK and other advanced economies. Your loved ones should feel safe inside your home and consider it as a safe haven. While alarm systems do not guarantee 100% security, they can still make a huge difference.

Protect your assets We also want our family to live a happy and comfortable life. That is why we spend most of our waking hours trying to provide for them. It can be devastating to have all our hard-earned possessions taken away from us in one night. Burglars are finding ingenious ways to steal cars without even entering the house, making security gates a worthwhile investment. Burglars often take items with sentimental value to us too. What if they steal the last piece of jewellery that a departed loved one gave you? What if they take a mobile phone filled with pictures of your kids growing up? When you install a reliable security system, you can prevent this from happening. It is better to be prepared and spend a little over your budget than be regretful in the end.

Visual documentation of the crime Burglars themselves have told that CCTV cameras (along with barking dogs) are the best deterrent. And where they don t deter, they can visually document the crime and be used as evidence in a criminal prosecution. Monitor your home We often worry about home security the most when we re away on holiday or a business trip. Luckily, security systems and surveillance cameras can now be monitored remotely from your phone and send alerts if a break-in is suspected. If burglars see CCTV or motion detectors installed around your property, they ll probably remove you from their hitlist If alerts are triggered then you can visually verify if there s an intruder and alert the police if so; if you don t get an alert, then you can enjoy your holiday with peace of mind. Discourage burglary attempts Burglars only need about eight to 12 minutes to accomplish their goals. However, when they hear the blaring siren of your security system, they usually make a quick exit without taking much or anything, knowing that the police are just a few moments away. You can mount motion detectors on your windows and doors. When someone comes near them or tries to damage an entry point, the sensors will either light up or sound the alarm.

Before committing the crime, burglars usually observe the house they are targeting. If they see that you have CCTV or motion detectors installed around your property, they will probably remove you from their hitlist. Thieves prefer to commit crimes in darkness and cameras and light triggering motion sensors pose a big problem. Protection during a fire Investing on a smoke alarm is also necessary especially when you live in a bushfire zone or you have elderly people in your house. When someone forgets to turn off the stove, you can be alerted and take preventative action. But what if the smoke alarm goes off and no one is in your home? What if no one hears the alarm? Well, you will be delighted to know that there are smoke alarms that can be connected to a third-party monitoring company. So even when no one is at home, someone can alert the authorities and dispatch firefighters to your house.

Lower your insurance premium When you improve the level of security of your home, you can get lower home and contents insurance premiums. When your insurance company sees that you are taking preventative measures in securing your home, they will consider your house as less of a risk. You can even ask for a discount on your premium. Emergency medical assistance If you live with elderly loved ones or with relatives who suffer from certain medical conditions, you can find systems that can be customised to include medical emergency features. Your loved ones can wear a pendant that can be connected to the security system. In the event of a medical emergency, they just have to press the button on their pendant and a medical team will be dispatched to your home right away giving you peace of mind when they re at home alone. Home security systems are definitely a valuable investment. To enjoy maximum benefits, you can contact a security specialist and ask them about other safety features you can install, such as roller shutters, security doors and infill grills. Free Download: The smart buildings report 2017 Are you one of the 70% felt that there was room for improvement to your smart building?

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We believe in effective deployment of our resources at an affordable rate to you. Many would be in dire straits by the time they decide to engage a private investigator. The cost of waiting and in losing a battle which may alter your life ahead and spiral you down the abyss is not a logical step forward.

Therefore, it really makes no sense for you to continue with that procrastination. The fear of uncertainties, the reprisal, the disgruntlement, and the sadness that will eventually cripple you and your family till the very end has to stop. The best thing that one can do for oneself is to take a step back, find someone that can help you regain your stead and put you back in control of the situation.

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Virgin Trains had legitimate interest in publishing Corbyn images, rules ICO

data protection Virgin Trains did not breach data protection laws by publishing CCTV images of Jeremy Corbyn as he searched the company s train carriages in search of a seat, the Information Commissioner s Office has ruled. Such an action would ordinarily be in breach of the law, said the ICO, but Virgin had a legitimate interest in releasing the footage to rebut news reports that the Labour leader had been unable to find a seat. Richard Branson, founder of the rail operator, had tweeted out the footage, which was captured on one of his trains on 11 August 2016, to prove that spare seats were in fact available, contradicting the Labour leader s assertion that the train was ram-packed .

Photo: Virgin Trains under CC3.0 licence Corbyn was sat on the floor of the train when he made the comment, which were captured by a filmmaker accompanying him during his campaign to retain the Labour leadership. Countering Branson s tweet, Corbyn he had been unable to sit with his wife, and that he was only able to sit later because train staff had upgraded another family to first class. Virgin Trains did not entirely escape censure. The ICO found that the rail operator did breach the data protection rights several passengers whose faces it had failed to pixellate. Misleading In a statement, ICO head of enforcement Steve Eckersley said: In this case, the ICO s view was that Virgin had a legitimate interest, namely correcting what it deemed to be misleading news reports that were potentially damaging to its reputation and commercial interests. It would not have been possible to achieve Virgin s legitimate interests without publishing Mr Corbyn s image. Virgin could only show that there were empty seats on Mr Corbyn s journey if they showed Mr Corbyn on that journey. The Labour leader s celebrity was also a relevant factor, said Eckersley, as he would have different expectations than other passengers as to his privacy. This was especially the case given the video of the trip he himself had published and that he should reasonably expect Virgin to respond in kind .

By contrast, however, the other passengers whose faces were not pixellated were simply minding their own business and Virgin Trains had infringed on their privacy . Nevertheless, the ICO is taking no action against the company as only three people in the footage were recognisable, none of whom had contacted the ICO to complain. Shortly after the incident, Chris Brogan of B&G Associates wrote on IFSEC Global: The sixth condition of schedule 2 of the Data Protection Act addresses the use of personal data for the legitimate interests of the data controller as long as it does not prejudice the rights and freedoms or legitimate interests of the data subject. Virgin have a legitimate interest in protecting its brand . Jeremy made the issue public and Virgin has defended its rights. This is a balancing act and I suggest that the information tribunal/court would find in favour of Virgin. I cannot see under the circumstances how Jeremy would win the argument that the publication of his images by Virgin prejudiced his rights. Free download: The video surveillance report 2017 Sponsored by IDIS The Video Surveillance Report 2017 covers all things video surveillance based on a poll of hundreds of security professionals. Specifically looking at topics such as open platforms, 4K, low-light cameras, video analytics, warranties and this year due to the growing threat posed, the cybersecurity landscape.

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BSIA responds to cash courier shooting in London

Walthamstow shooting The trade body representing the private security industry in the UK has issued the following statement relating to the recent shooting of a cash-in-transit courier in Walthamstow, north-east London. The cash-in-transit courier was injured from the shooting ambush. James Kelly, chief executive of the British Security Industry Association (BSIA) said in a statement: Every day, cash-in-transit couriers perform a vital public service, transporting cash around the country and supporting banks, retailers and businesses by facilitating millions of financial transactions across the UK.

However, in doing so, they place themselves at risk of extreme violence, as today s incident sadly reminds us. Kelly goes on to point out that the number of attacks on cash-in-transit couriers remains at an all-time low. There were 76 injuries to cash-in-transit crew members, police and the wider public in 2016. However, the risk of violence and injury remains a very real threat to couriers. This is something that the private security industry together with its partners in police and government is continually working to reduce through initiatives like SaferCash, which shares intelligence about attacks and suspicious incidents between couriers and the police, continued Kelly. Our thoughts are with the injured courier and his family who have made a very personal sacrifice for the sake of our nation s economic security and we wish him a full and speedy recovery. The BSIA is a longstanding and valued partner of, and exhibitor at, IFSEC International, Europe s biggest fire and security trade show taking place 20-22 June 2017, London ExCeL. Get your free badge now. Take your security knowledge to the next level at IFSEC International 2017 Experts from across all areas of the industry will attend to share their expertise on critical topics on 20 22 June 2017.

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Lessons for Public Health …


1 GAO United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters September 2000 WEST NILE VIRUS OUTBREAK Lessons for Public Health Preparedness GAO/HEHS

Protect yourself against ransomware: back up, educate, patch, contain

Protect Yourself Against Ransomware: Back Up, Educate, Patch, Contain

Ransomware operations are so rewarding in terms of hard cash that infosec specialists point out that regular cyber criminals are abandoning old methods of earning money like credit card fraud and stealing bank account info. Lawmakers are correspondingly focusing more on these cyber extortionists. I m afraid, however, that we shouldn t really rely on the authorities to protect us.

Any one of us is still basically alone in combating ransomware strikes, whereby hackers encrypt our computers or valuable files in the hope we pay a ransom to get our data back. You may choose to pay out, as many victims do. The FBI has said that people who informed the Bureau of ransomware episodes added about $24m to cyber criminals coffers in 2015. Yet even if you ve copied all your data to the offline backup in secure storage and decide not to send pay hackers, your damages will still include the price of cleaning devices and systems and recovering backup data. The latter may take several days or even weeks, varying with the size of the network. Nevertheless, you aren t entirely vulnerable to the whims of hackers. Below are some simple recommendations on steps to follow to safeguard yourself and your organisation. Any business or organisation that relies on constant use of crucial data and literally can t survive if it loses access to that data even for the shortest period of time needed to react to the breach should be most worried about the ransomware threat First things first, what kind of organisations tend to be targeted for ransomware attacks? Any business or organisation that relies on constant use of crucial data and literally can t survive if it loses access to that data even for the shortest period of time needed to react to the breach should be most worried.

That is why hospitals, banks, police departments, airlines and other institutions need to be the most alert to possible threats. Any big company or public institution is also in danger, as well as critical infrastructure, to some degree. For example, ransomware might damage the Windows systems that water and power plants employ to keep track of their operations. Home computer users are also vulnerable to ransomware. If you prefer to backup to on-site storage or servers rather than cloud storage, they must be offline and not linked to desktop computers Back up The ideal protection against ransomware would be to outsmart hackers by not becoming susceptible to their threats. What this means is backing up valuable data files each and every day so that even if your PCs or servers get encrypted, you won t be compelled to pay to get your files or systems back. Many ransomware authors look for backup drives and devices to encrypt them too by initially obtaining access to desktop computers then travelling through your environment to reach the backup servers. So if you prefer to backup to on-site storage or servers rather than cloud storage, they must be offline and not linked to desktop computers. With clear, correct instructions and regular training it s possible to drastically reduce the incidence or risk of online breaches Many people keep files on network shares, unaware that network shares are as exposed as your desktop computer during a ransomware incident.

In case the backup is achieved offline, and that place is not accessible from the computer that is initially compromised, then you re alright. The same principle applies if you carry out your personal PC backups with a secondary physical drive. Those disc drives need only be in touch with your computer when conducting backups and turned off immediately after that. In the event your backup disc is linked to the computer during the period the ransomware operates, then it might get encrypted too. Backups won t automatically make a ransomware incident pain-free, as it can take days or weeks to recover data, potentially disrupting business processes. Some healthcare institutions decide to pay the ransom simply because patients lives are at risk and even short downtime is considered unacceptable. User awareness training Phishing is a popular form of bait when it comes to infecting computers. The hackers spam you with messages with infected attachments and lure you to click on a web link that leads you to a hacked website from which ransomware can infect your computer with the help of an exploit kit. Malvertising is another highly effective infection vector.

This means hacking into an ad network and embedding a virus in advertisements that get served via websites you respect and know very well. Ad blockers, which are browser plugins, can help block those harmful ads. Patching web browsers is an important step to keeping malware at bay too. Imitation ransomware attacks have seen the number of workers clicking on phishing links plummet from 16% to 1% in some organisations Cyber security professionals generally recommend that organisations provide training to their employees on how to recognise phishing emails and scan email attachments for viruses prior to opening them. With clear, correct instructions and regular training it s possible to drastically reduce the incidence or risk of online breaches. You could even bombard your workers with fake, harmless phishing attacks to test their vigilance and turn it into a game. Why not make it a routine element of corporate life? Imitation ransomware attacks have seen the number of workers clicking on phishing links plummet from 16% to 1% in some organisations. Patch Employees should not be regarded as the final defence line.

Your users may still periodically click on attachments or visit compromised websites. When that occurs, you need to be sure that your security software safeguards you. There are numerous end-point security solutions built to defend computer systems from the latest virus attacks. To detect viruses, these solutions use behavioral analyses to identify unusual moves and connections within your environment. However, no security product or service is perfect, so businesses might take additional security steps to stay safe. These steps include: software patching, updating operating systems some of these security measures: During an online attack, cyber crooks take advantage of security holes in third-party plug-ins like Flash and Java , so it s crucial to keep those updated. Whitelisting computer software operating on devices is also an effective method for preventing breaches because the lists won t allow your PC to run any software or code that s not previously authorised. IT personnel initially examine a computer to list the trustworthy software programs, after which they configure it to stop executables from launching and installing. System admins can implement techniques that restrict system permissions and user privileges with an admin s password.

You might also want to segment use of valuable data with supplementary servers . Instead of allowing a large number of workers to reach files on just one server, you can divide staff members into small sets, so if one server becomes encrypted by ransomware, it won t impact all employees and all data. This strategy means hackers have to work harder to cause substantial damages, because they must discover and encrypt several systems and servers instead of one. Contain When Washington-based healthcare giant MedStar Health was attacked by ransomware in March 2016, their admins instantly turned off most of the organisation s operations and networks to stop the virus from distributing. Not only should you disconnect and shut down affected devices, but you must also deactivate all Bluetooth and Wi-Fi on the rest of computers to restrict the virus from dispersing to other devices. Following that, you should identify what strain of ransomware infected you. In case it s a known type, antivirus firms might have decryptors to assist you in freeing up important data files without spending money. But if you haven t backed up your data and can t find a solution to break the encryption, the only way to retrieve your files is to pay hackers the ransom. Bottom line Old-fashioned hacks were much less painful for users.

People cleaned their machines and just moved on. But ransomware can quickly ruin businesses. Home users can lose all their family photos. It s easy to see with so much at stake why so many victims pay out. Computer security experts tend to urge people not to pay the ransoms because it only motivates other hackers and feeds this crime economy. But when your own data is not at stake, it s hard to insist that someone should not pay out. Download: The Video Surveillance Report 2016 This exclusive report covers the security needs of surveillance systems as shaped by the physical environment including: What do security professionals think about plug-and-play systems Challenges like low-light conditions or large spaces and the threats posed in various sectors Which cutting-edge features such as mobile access, PTZ smart controls or 4K resolution are most important to security professionals What are the most important factors driving upgrades and would end users consider an upgrade to HD analogue Download the full report here.

Bodyguard – Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Bodyguard (disambiguation). Not to be confused with lifeguard. Bodyguard Bodyguard - Wikipedia The President of France, Fran ois Hollande (in the rear seat), and his bodyguards Occupation Names Close protection officer, executive protection agent, personal protection specialist Occupation type Government employment or private employment Activity sectors Law enforcement, Government, Military, Security Description Competencies Team player, confidential, discreet, alert, observant, ability to stay focused, physically fit, calm under pressure Education required Background in security, law enforcement, armed forces, Security Industry Authority, driver’s license Related jobs Security guard, law enforcement officer, anti-terrorism specialist, intelligence officer, military special operations, private investigator

A bodyguard (or close protection officer) is a type of security guard or government law enforcement officer or soldier who protects a person or people usually high-ranking public officials or officers, wealthy people, and celebrities from danger: generally theft, assault, kidnapping, assassination, harassment, loss of confidential information, threats, or other criminal offences. The group of personnel who protect a VIP are often referred to as the VIP’s security detail. Most important public figures such as heads of state, heads of government, and governors are protected by several bodyguards or by a team of bodyguards from an agency, security forces, or police forces (e.g., in the U.S., the United States Secret Service or the State Department‘s Diplomatic Security Service). In most countries where the Head of state is and have always been also their military leader, the leader’s bodyguards have traditionally been Royal Guards, Republican Guards and other elite military units. Less-important public figures, or those with lower risk profiles, may be accompanied by a single bodyguard who doubles as a driver.

A number of high-profile celebrities and CEOs also use bodyguards. In some countries or regions (e.g., in Latin America), wealthy people may have a bodyguard when they travel. In some cases, the security personnel utilize a bulletproof vehicle, which protects them and the VIP.


Popular misconceptions

Bodyguard - Wikipedia Queen Elizabeth II protected by a Close Protection Officer from Ireland’s Special Detective Unit

The role of bodyguards is often misunderstood by the public, because the typical layperson’s only exposure to body-guarding is usually in highly dramatized action film depictions of the profession, in which bodyguards are depicted in firefights with attackers. In contrast to the exciting lifestyle depicted on the film screen, the role of a real-life bodyguard is much more mundane: it consists mainly of planning routes, pre-searching rooms and buildings where the client will be visiting, researching the background of people that will have contact with the client, searching vehicles, and attentively escorting the client on their day-to-day activities.1

Breakdown of responsibilities

Bodyguard - Wikipedia French President Fran ois Hollande, accompanied by bodyguards

The role of a bodyguard depends on several factors. First, it depends on the role of a given bodyguard in a close protection team. A bodyguard can be a driver-bodyguard, a close-protection officer (who escorts the client), or part of an ancillary unit that provides support such as IED detection, electronic “bug” detection, counter-sniper monitoring, pre-searches facilities, and background-checks people who will have contact with the client. Second, the role of a bodyguard depends on the level of risk that the client faces. A bodyguard protecting a client at high risk of assassination will be focusing on very different roles (e.g., checking cars for IED devices, bombs, watching for potential shooters, etc.) than a bodyguard escorting a celebrity who is being stalked by aggressive tabloid photographers (e.g., the role will be to ask the photographers to maintain their distance and block the path of aggressive cameramen). Some bodyguards specialize in the close quarter protection of children of VIPs, to protect them from kidnapping or assassination.2


In some cases, bodyguards also drive their clients.

Normally, it is not sufficient for a client to be protected by a single driver-bodyguard, because this would mean that the bodyguard would have to leave the car unattended when they escort the client on foot. If the car is left unattended, this can lead to several risks: an explosive device may be attached to the car; an electronic “bug” may be attached to the car; the car may be sabotaged; or city parking officials may simply tow away the vehicle or place a wheel clamp on the tire. If parking services tow away or disable the car, then the bodyguard cannot use the car to escape with the client in case there is a security threat while the client is at his or her meeting. The driver should be trained in evasive driving techniques, such as executing short-radius turns to change the direction of the vehicle, high-speed cornering, and so on. The car used by the client will typically be a large sedan with a low center of gravity and a powerful engine, such as a Jaguar, BMW or Mercedes Benz. In some countries, large trucks such as Suburbans are used for VIPs. At a minimum, the vehicle should have ballistic glass in the windows, some type of armor reinforcement to protect the client from gunfire, and a foam-filled gas tank. “Run-flat tires” (which have either extremely stiff sidewalls or a resilient filler to allow driving a limited distance while flat, usually at reduced speed, without permanent damage or hazard) and armor protection for the driver are also desirable.

The car may also be equipped with an additional battery; dual foot-pedal controls, such as those used by driving instruction companies (in case the driver is wounded or incapacitated), a PA system with a microphone and a megaphone mounted on the outside of the car, so that the driver can give commands to other convoy vehicles or bodyguards who are on foot; fire extinguishers inside the vehicle in case the vehicle is struck by a Molotov cocktail bomb or other weapon; a reinforced front and rear bumper, to enable the driver to ram attacking vehicles; and additional mirrors, to give the driver a better field of view. In Latin American countries many armored cars will come with a siren and lights to use in situations were they need to get out of places quickly. Decoy convoys and vehicles are used to prevent tailing. In the event the convoy holding the client is compromised and ambushed, decoy convoys can also act as a reinforcement force that can ambush a force that is attacking the primary convoy. Some clients rotate between residences in different cities when attending public events or meetings to prevent being tailed home or to a private location.

Weapons and weapon tactics

Bodyguard - Wikipedia U.S. Secret Service agents guarding the former First Lady Laura Bush

Depending on the laws in a bodyguard’s jurisdiction and on which type of agency or security service they are in, bodyguards may be unarmed, armed with a less-lethal weapon such as a pepper spray, an expandable baton, or a Taser (or a similar type stun gun), or with a lethal weapon such as a handgun, or, in the case of a government bodyguard for a Secret Service-type agency, a machine pistol.3 Some bodyguards such as those protecting high ranking government officials or those operating in high risk environments such as war zones may carry sub-machine guns or assault rifles.

Bodyguard - Wikipedia Walter B. Slocombe, the U.S. Under Secretary of Defense for Policy with his bodyguard in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1996. The bodyguard is armed with an AR-15, a 5.56 mm, magazine-fed, semi-automatic rifle.

In addition to these weapons, a bodyguard team may also have more specialist weapons to aid them in maintaining the safety of their principal, such as sniper rifles and anti-material rifles (for anti-sniper protection) or shotguns (either loaded with buckshot as an anti-personnel weapon or with solid slugs as an anti-vehicle weapon).

Bin Laden‘s personal security detail consisted of “bodyguards…personally selected by him.” Their “arsenal included SAM-7 and Stinger missiles, AK-47s, RPGs, and PK machine guns (similar to an M60).”4

Bodyguards that protect high-risk principals may wear body armor such as kevlar or ceramic vests. The bodyguards may also have other ballistic shields, such as kevlar-reinforced briefcases or clipboards which, while appearing innocuous, can be used to protect the principal. The principal may also wear body armor in high-risk situations.

Counter-sniper weapons and tactics

Bodyguard - Wikipedia Team of bodyguards protecting the President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff during her inaugural ceremony.

For a close protection officer, the primary tactic against sniper attacks is defensive: avoid exposing the principal to the risk of being fired upon. This means that the principal should ideally be within an armored vehicle or a secure structure. As well, when the principal moves between a vehicle and a building, the principal must be moved quickly to minimize the time window in which a sniper could take a shot and use a flanking escort of close protection officers to block the view of the sniper and any potential shot that the sniper may take. The use of offensive tactics against snipers will occur very rarely in a bodyguard context, because it is very difficult for bodyguards to attempt to locate and fire back at a distant, concealed, or camouflaged sniper, even if the security detail has a carbine rifle or scoped sniper rifle in the trunk of the car.

Daily tasks

A bodyguard team protecting a high-profile politician who is at risk of attack would be based around escorting the client from a secure residence (e.g., an embassy) to the different meetings and other activities he has to attend during the day (whether professional or social), and then to escort the client back to his residence.

Planning and assigning responsibilities

The day would begin with a meeting of the bodyguard team led by the team leader. The team would review the different activities that the client plans to do during the day, and discuss how the team would undertake the different transportation, escorting, and monitoring tasks. During the day, the client (or “principal”) may have to travel by car, train, and plane and attend a variety of functions, including meetings and invitations for meals at restaurants, and do personal activities such as recreation and errands.

Bodyguard - Wikipedia Angela Merkel flanked by her bodyguards as she mingles with a crowd

Over the day, the client will be exposed to a range of risk levels, ranging from higher risk (meeting and greeting members of the public at an outdoor rally) to low risk (dining at an exclusive, gated country club with high security).

Bodyguard - Wikipedia The Fruit of Islam are a special group of bodyguards for Muslim leader Elijah Muhammad.

Some planning for the day would have begun on previous days. Once the itinerary is known, one or more bodyguards would travel the route to the venues, to check the roads for unexpected changes (road work, detours, closed lanes) and to check the venue. The venue needs to be checked for bugs and the security of the facility (exits, entrances) needs to be inspected. As well, the bodyguards will want to know the names of the staff who will have contact with the client, so that a simple electronic background check can be run on these individuals.

Bodyguards often have training in firearms tactics, unarmed combat, tactical driving, and first aid. In multi-agent units (like those protecting a head of state) one or more bodyguards may have training in specific tasks, such as providing a protective escort, crowd screening and control, or searching for explosives or electronic surveillance devices (“bugs”). Bodyguards also learn how to work with other security personnel to conduct threat or risk assessment and analyze potential security weaknesses.

Bodyguard - Wikipedia Heavily-armed bodyguards from NSWDG provide close protection for Afghan President Hamid Karzai.

Bodyguards learn how to examine a premises or venue before their clients arrive, to determine where the exits and entrances are, find potential security weaknesses, and meet the staff (so that a would-be attacker cannot pose as a staff member). As well, some bodyguards learn how to do research to be aware of potential threats to their client, by doing a thorough assessment of the threats facing the principal, such as a protest by a radical group or the release from custody of person who is a known threat. Close protection officers also learn how to escort a client in potentially threatening situations such as crowds that become unruly. The militaries in many countries offer close protection training for the members of their own armed forces who have been selected to work as bodyguards to officers or heads of state (e.g., the 22 Special Air Service Regiment). As well, there are a number of private bodyguard training programs, which offer training in all aspects of close protection and including the legal aspects of bodyguarding (e.g., use of force, use of deadly force); how to escort clients; driving; searching facilities and vehicles, and so on.

Searching vehicles

An hour prior to leaving with the client to his first appointment, the driver-bodyguard and another bodyguard remove the cars that will be used to transport the client from the locked garage and inspect them. There may be only one car for a lower risk client. A higher risk client will have additional cars to form a protective convoy of vehicles that can flank the client’s vehicle. The vehicles are inspected before leaving.

Transferring client to vehicle

Once the cars have been inspected and they are deemed to be ready for use, they are brought into position near the exit door where the client will leave the secure building. At least one driver-bodyguard stays with the cars while waiting, because the now-searched cars cannot be left unattended. If the convoy is left unattended, an attacker could attach an IED or sabotage one or more of the cars. Then the bodyguard team flanks the client as he moves from the secure residence to his car.


Bodyguard - Wikipedia A bodyguard team conducting a vehicle ambush drill.

The convoy then moves out towards the destination. The team will have chosen a route or two and in some cases it may involve three routes that are designated for travel along, which avoids the most dangerous “choke points”, such as one-lane bridges or tunnels, because these routes have no way of escape and they are more vulnerable to ambush. A SWAT magazine article states that when the author was serving as security detail, “where we had Beretta 92s fully automatic machine pistols, we would try to grab at least one 93R 20-round mag to carry as a spare for breaking ambushes.”5 In some cases, if the client has to travel by train, the bodyguards will inspect the rail car they are traveling in and the other cars he/she will use. Traveling on foot to a destination is very dangerous because of the lack of cover and control over the environment.

Arrival at destination

Bodyguard - Wikipedia Bodyguard protects the Czech Republic President Milo Zeman during arrival.

When the convoy arrives at the location, one or more bodyguards will exit first to confirm that the location is secure and that the staff who were booked to work that day are the ones who are present. If the location is secure, these bodyguards signal that it is safe to bring in the client. The client is escorted into the building using a flanking procedure. If the client is attending a private meeting inside the building, and the building itself is secure (controlled entrances) the client will not need to have a bodyguard escort in the building.

The bodyguards can then pull back to monitor his or her safety from a further distance. Bodyguards could monitor entrances and exits and the driver-bodyguard watches the cars. If the client is moving about in a fairly controlled environment such as a private golf course, which has limited entrances and exits, the security detail may drop down to one or two bodyguards, with the other bodyguards monitoring the entrances to the facility, the cars, and remaining in contact with the bodyguards escorting the client. Throughout the day, as the client goes about his activities, the number of bodyguards escorting the client will increase or decrease according to the level of risk.

Return to secure location

After the day’s activities, the client will be brought back to the secure residence location. Exiting from the vehicle and walking to the door exposes the client to risk, so the distance is kept as short as possible to cut down the time it takes to reach the door. Once the client is inside, the bodyguards assigned to the overnight detail will take up their positions outside or inside the residence. The vehicles are then parked in a locked garage (to prevent tampering, sabotage, or IED placement).

Some team members may spend additional time doing maintenance on the equipment used by the team. The TL (team leader) will ensure that all equipment is checked and packed away for the next day and ensure the radios are being charged for the next day’s operation.

Job requirements

Bodyguard - Wikipedia The bodyguard of Sheik Abdul Sattar Abu Risha, who was killed by an IED in the assassination of the Sheik in 2007

Bodyguards often work long shifts in order to provide 24-hour protection, and shifts often include evenings, weekends, and holidays. Since bodyguards follow their clients throughout their daily activities, the work locations may range from indoor office meetings or social events to outdoor rallies or concerts. Bodyguards often have to travel by car, motorcycle, train, and airplane to escort their client. In some cases, international travel is required, which means that a bodyguard must have appropriate travel documentation. Bodyguards often have backgrounds in the armed forces, police or security services, although this is not required. The exception to this is in the case of bodyguards protecting heads of state; in some countries, these bodyguards must be trained in military bodyguard training programs.

Military experience in foot patrol and convoys escort through urban areas in conflict or war as in Afghanistan, Iraq, West Bank, Northern Ireland, Beirut, Basque country, and other areas under non conventional enemy stress around civilians is highly considered and difficult to match with any training time though, usually those experienced do not always seek these careers or further exposure in less stressful circumstances but familiar environments. Bodyguards must be physically fit, with good eyesight and hearing, and they need to have a presentable appearance, especially for close protection work for dignitaries and heads of state. A driver’s license is usually required, so that the bodyguard can double as a driver. In the United Kingdom and some other countries, bodyguards have to have a license or certification with the SIA, which involves identity and criminal record checks. To be a bodyguard in an agency protecting a head of state, a bodyguard will have to undergo extensive background and loyalty checks.

Bodyguard - Wikipedia Quanell X (center), the leader of the New Black Panther Party, flanked by his bodyguards.

Bodyguards need to be observant, and retain their focus on their job, despite distractions such as fatigue. As well, they need to be able to work as member of a team, with assigned tasks, or be able to act independently, and adapt and improvise an appropriate response if the need arises. Bodyguards need to be able to recognize potentially dangerous situations and remain calm under pressure. A bodyguard has to have a strong dedication to their protective role. Since bodyguards often have to collaborate or coordinate their protection with other security forces, such as local police other private security guards, bodyguards need good interpersonal and communications skills. Since bodyguards accompany their client throughout their day, the bodyguard will be privy to the private life of the client, which means that a bodyguard has to show discretion and maintain confidentiality.


Bodyguard - Wikipedia A Croatian close protection unit trains using submachine guns and pistols during a demonstration exercise

Bodyguards often have training in firearms tactics, unarmed combat, tactical driving, and first aid. In multi-agent units (like those protecting a head of state) one or more bodyguards may have training in specific tasks, such as providing a protective escort, crowd screening and control, or searching for explosives or electronic surveillance devices (“bugs”). Bodyguards also learn how to work with other security personnel to conduct threat or risk assessment and analyze potential security weaknesses. Henley-Putnam University offers courses in executive protection.

Bodyguards learn how to examine a premises or venue before their clients arrive, to determine where the exits and entrances are, find potential security weaknesses, and meet the staff (so that a would-be attacker cannot pose as a staff member). As well, some bodyguards learn how to do research to be aware of potential threats to their client, by doing a thorough assessment of the threats facing the principal,6 such as a protest by a radical group or the release from custody of person who is a known threat. Close protection officers also learn how to escort a client in potentially threatening situations. The militaries in many countries offer close protection training for the members of their own armed forces who have been selected to work as bodyguards to officers or heads of state (e.g., the British RMP). As well, there are a number of private bodyguard training programs, which offer training in all aspects of close protection and including the legal aspects of bodyguarding (e.g., use of force, use of deadly force); how to escort clients; driving; searching facilities and vehicles, and so on.

Within the UK, the industry is regulated via the Security Industry Authority and requires an individual to obtain a level 3 vocational training qualification in addition to a first aid certificate prior to a license being issued. Most UK firms will also request this even if operations are outside of the UK.

Notable organizations

Bodyguard - Wikipedia 18th century Manchu Imperial Guard of the Qianlong Emperor

In countries where the head of state is a military leader or dictator, the leader’s bodyguards may also be part of an elite military unit. Such was the case with the Somatophylakes in Macedon, Schutzstaffel in Nazi Germany, the former Iraqi Special Republican Guard, or the Praetorian Guard in the Roman Empire, Varangians of the Byzantine Empire, or the Housecarls of the English Monarchs. The British monarch has at least three traditional bodyguard corps in service, known collectively as the Sovereign’s Bodyguard.

In India, VIPs are protected by National Security Guards (NSG), an organization under the Ministry of Home Affairs. The protection of the Prime Minister and some other important persons is entrusted with the Special Protection Group (SPG). SPG was formed as a specialized unit in the protection of Prime Minister and his family members, after the assassination of the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, in 1984. Former Prime Ministers also get the protection of SPG for a period of 5 years, after stepping down from the post. The President of India is also protected by SPG while the President’s Bodyguards, which is a mechanized regiment of Indian Army, has now a largely ceremonial role. Persons with lower threat level are given security cover by Delhi police in the Capitol and respective state police forces elsewhere.

In Pakistan, the President and Prime Minister receive close protection teams from the military’s elite Special Service Group unit. President Pervez Musharraf, as civilian head of state, was due to have this withdrawn after retiring as Chief of Army Staff, but the Pakistan Army has retained his close protection unit. In Turkey, there are two main services, tasked with close protection. The Prime Minister of Turkey is protected by the Kar Sald r Timi’nde (KST), an elite counterattack team, a subunit of the Office for Protection of the Prime Minister (Ba bakanl k Koruma Dairesi Ba kanl ). The Office for Protection of the PM is itself a service of the General Directorate of Security (Emniyet Genel M d rl ), the civil police force of Turkey. The President is closely protected by the Cumhurbaskanligi Muhafiz Alayi, the 2 500-strong Presidential Guard Regiment of the Turkish Army, subordinated to the 4th Army Corps. It consists of specially selected personnel and is charged with the duty of protecting the President (and members of his family), security of the Presidential palaces and also the manning of the Turkish President’s mode of transport (e.g., pilots for TC-ANA, the presidential plane etc.).

Bodyguard - Wikipedia The Cossaks Imperator Bodyguard unit from the early 1900s

In the United States, the United States Secret Service safeguards the lives of the President, his family, and other executive officials, including former presidents and vice-presidents. Another agency, the State Department‘s Bureau of Diplomatic Security, is responsible for protecting U.S. missions and their personnel overseas, as well as selected dignitaries in the U.S., including the Ambassador to the United Nations, the Secretary of State, and visiting foreign dignitaries other than heads of state. While the Secret Service’s close-protection role is its most visible, its historic role as agents of the United States Treasury (although they are now agents of the Department of Homeland Security) made it unusual internationally, as usually “official” bodyguards are part of general police forces.

Bodyguard - Wikipedia A Nepalese Gurkha bodyguard in Nangarhar

In the UK during 1913-1914 the suffragette movement did protests in an attempt to change the UK law so that women would be able to vote. After suffragette leaders were threatened, activists formed an all-female close protection unit to protect the leaders of the Women’s Social and Political Union both from harassment by the general public and from arrest under the so-called Cat and Mouse Act. In the modern UK, Royalty and Diplomatic Protection Department of the Metropolitan Police is responsible for the security of the Sovereign.

In the Vatican, the Pope and other senior Vatican officials are protected by Swiss Guards, Swiss mercenary soldiers who act as bodyguards, ceremonial guards, and palace guards. After the May 13, 1981 assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II by Mehmet Ali A ca, the guards were given enhanced training in unarmed combat and firearm use. The pope’s chief bodyguard is the Inspector General of the Corps of Gendarmerie of Vatican City. In the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, most bodyguards are former or current police officers, or sometimes former military or other government agency personnel.

In fiction

Bodyguard - Wikipedia Illustration of Japanese Imperial bodyguard Watanabe no Tsuna fighting a demon

Novels and stories

The brave and fiercely protective bodyguard who is willing to die to protect his master has long been depicted in fiction. The character of the Scottish hero Quentin Durward appears in stories as the bodyguard of the King of France. The character Charles d’Artagnan appears in stories as the bodyguard of the French Crown. The character Atticus Kodiak is a professional bodyguard who acts as narrator and protagonist in a series of novels by Greg Rucka. Bodyguards also appear in Usagi Yojimbo, Stan Sakai‘s anthropomorphicrabbit samurai based upon Miyamoto Musashi and in the Artemis Fowl series of children’s books.

Films and television

Bodyguards are also depicted in a number of films and television programs. In an episode of Star Trek: TOS entitled Mirror, Mirror , Captain Kirk and his landing party are exchanged with their counterparts from a savage parallel universe. Aboard the Imperial Enterprise, junior officers conspire to assassinate senior officers as a means of advancing in rank. Therefore, the Imperial Kirk is shadowed by a number of (presumably very well paid) security officers loyal only to him. He refers to these men as his personal guard .

Japanese director Akira Kurosawa‘s film Yojimbo depicts a samurai bodyguard in Japan. The Bodyguard is a film about a bodyguard who protects a celebrity singer. Gogo Yubari is O-Ren Ishii’s bodyguard in the film Kill Bill: Volume 1. In the science-fiction/fantasy Star Wars films, MagnaGuards are General Grievous‘s bodyguards. Being a body guard is also a duty performed on special occasions by the Jedi Knights. In the film Lord of War, the main character’s brother protects him while he makes arms deals in war-torn countries. In the 1980 motion picture My Bodyguard, high school student Clifford Peache (Chris Makepeace) is bullied by Melvin Moody (Matt Dillon).

Clifford asks school outcast Ricky Linderman (Adam Baldwin) to be his bodyguard. In the action comedy film Shanghai Noon martial arts star Jackie Chan plays the role of an Imperial Guard of China on a mission to America to help rescue a princess. In the film Man on Fire, John Creasy (Denzel Washington) is a burnt-out ex-CIA officer and counter-insurgency operative who grudgingly becomes the bodyguard of a young girl (played by Dakota Fanning). When kidnappers attempt to snatch the girl, Creasy is severely wounded in a gun battle. The film depicts his perseverance in attempting to continue to protect the girl despite his gunshot wounds, until he becomes unconscious. When he recovers, he goes on a revenge rampage in Mexico City.

Several films have been made about the Secret Service’s role in guarding the President of the U.S., such as In the Line of Fire and The Sentinel. Bodyguards are also depicted in television shows, comics, and other media. Bodyguard is a Japanese television series starring Reiko Takashima. In the UK, Bodyguards was a late 1990s British television series about a specialized Close Protection Group that protected members of the UK government. On the E! television series The Royals (2015 present), HRH Prince Liam Henstridge (William Moseley) is protected by Marcus Jeffrys (Ukweli Roach), his no-nonsense bodyguard and confidante. Moreover, Liam s sister, HRH Princess Eleanor Henstridge (Alexandra Park) is protected by bodyguard Jasper Frost (Tom Austen) who is also blackmailing her for sex and having an affair with HRH Queen Helena Henstridge (Elizabeth Hurley) on the side.

Video games

In the Mortal Kombat fighting game series, Sheeva is the personal protector of Sindel. Suki is a Japanese manga about a relationship between a teenage girl and a 32-year-old bodyguard. In the 2009 videogame Grand Theft Auto: The Ballad of Gay Tony, the main character Luis Fernando Lopez works as a bodyguard for the nightclub owner Anthony “Gay Tony” Prince. In the 2012 video game “Dishonored”, the player takes the role of Corvo Attano, a bodyguard of Empress Jessamine Kaldwin and get framed for her murder. In the 2011-2012 video game “Witcher 2: Assassins of Kings”, the player takes the role of Geralt of Rivia, a professional monster slayer who begins the story a reluctant bodyguard of King Foltest of Temeria.

Comics and graphic novels

The Human Target is an American comic book and television series about a bodyguard who also works as a private detective who impersonates his principal to draw his would be murderer’s attention. The 2015 graphic novel trilogy Suffrajitsu: Mrs. Pankhurst’s Amazons features a team of suffragette bodyguards inspired by the real-life close-protection team who protected the leaders of the radical women’s suffrage movement from arrest and assault.

See also

Particular kinds of bodyguards


Bodyguard - Wikipedia Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bodyguards.

  1. ^ “What’s it like being a bodyguard?”. BBC. April 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-04.
  2. ^ “Student of Fortune”. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  3. ^ Leroy Thompson. “Close Protection Machine Pistols: Before PDWs there were high-capacity, full-auto pistols that served double duty!”, in Combat Handguns. Available at:
  4. ^ Soufan, Ali. The Black Banners: The Inside Story of 9/11 and the War Against al-Qaeda. W.W.

    Norton and Company.

    New York and London: 2011.Page 325

  5. ^
  6. ^ Basic Bodyguarding Skills 2008 by Craig Pedersen

Bodyguard - Wikipedia Retrieved from “

41 years. $3 billion.

Inside the Clinton donor network …

LITTLE ROCK Over four decades of public life, Bill and Hillary Clinton have built an unrivaled global network of donors while pioneering fundraising techniques that have transformed modern politics and paved the way for them to potentially become the first husband and wife to win the White House.

The grand total raised for all of their political campaigns and their family s charitable foundation reaches at least $3 billion, according to a Washington Post investigation. Their fundraising haul, which began with $178,000 that Bill Clinton raised for his long-shot 1974 congressional bid, is on track to expand substantially with Hillary Clinton s 2016 White House run, which has already drawn $110 million in support. The Post identified donations from roughly 336,000 individuals, corporations, unions and foreign governments in support of their political or philanthropic endeavors a list that includes top patrons such as Steven Spielberg and George Soros, as well as lesser-known backers who have given smaller amounts dozens of times. Not included in the count are an untold number of small donors whose names are not identified in campaign finance reports but together have given millions to the Clintons over the years.

The majority of the money $2 billion1 has gone to the Clinton Foundation2, one of the world s fastest-growing charities, which supports health, education and economic development initiatives around the globe. A handful of elite givers have contributed more than $25 million to the foundation, including Canadian mining magnate Frank Giustra, who is among the wealthy foreign donors 3who have given tens of millions. Separately, donors have given $1 billion to support the Clintons political races and legal defense fund, making capped contributions to their campaigns and writing six-figure checks to the Democratic National Committee and allied super PACs. The Post investigation found that many top Clinton patrons supported them in multiple ways, helping finance their political causes, their legal needs, their philanthropy and their personal bank accounts.

In some cases, companies connected to their donors hired the Clintons as paid speakers4, helping them collect more than $150 million on the lecture circuit5 in the past 15 years. The couple s biggest individual political benefactors are Univision chairman Haim Saban and his wife, Cheryl, who have made 39 contributions totaling $2.4 million to support the Clintons races since 1992. The Sabans have also donated at least $10 million to the foundation. The Clintons kept big contributors in their orbit for decades by methodically wooing competing interest groups toggling between their liberal base and powerful constituencies, according to donors, friends and aides who have known the couple since their Arkansas days.

They made historic inroads on Wall Street, pulling in at least $69 million in political contributions from the employees and PACs of banks, insurance companies, and securities and investment firms. Wealthy hedge fund managers S. Donald Sussman and David E. Shaw are among their top campaign supporters, having given more than $1 million each. The Clintons ties to the financial sector strained their bonds with the left, particularly organized labor. But unions repeatedly shook off their disappointment, giving at least $21 million to support their races.

The public employees union AFSCME has been their top labor backer, giving nearly $1.7 million for their campaigns. The Clintons fundraising operation $3 billion amassed by one couple, working in tandem for more than four decades has no equal. By comparison, three generations of the Bush family, America s other contemporaneous political dynasty, have raised about $2.4 billion for their state and federal campaigns and half a dozen charitable foundations, according to a Post tally of their fundraising from 1988 through 2015 even though the family has collectively held the presidency longer than the Clintons.


The Clintons have raised $3 billion in support of their political and philanthropic efforts over four decades. Nearly all the funds went to support six federal campaigns and their family foundation. NOTE: Bill Clinton s totals include donations to the Democratic National Committee and Hillary Clinton s totals include donations to allied PACs.


Both Clintons declined to be interviewed or comment for this article. Josh Schwerin, a spokesman for Hillary Clinton, said campaign officials could not re-create The Post s work to verify its findings.

However, it should be noted that it would be misleading, at best, to conflate donations to a philanthropy with political giving, Schwerin said in a statement. And regarding the campaign contributions, the breadth and depth of their support is a testament to the fact that they have both dedicated their lives to public service and fighting to make this country stronger.

The Clinton donor network is now serving as both a prime asset and liability for the former first lady, U.S. senator and secretary of state as she seeks the Democratic presidential nomination. Her imposing resources helped scare off would-be Democratic rivals, such as Vice President Biden, and have positioned her well against her main challenger for the party nomination, Sen. Bernie Sanders (Vt.). By the end of September, Clinton had raised $35 million more than Sanders, and she had pulled in more than double the total collected so far by the top campaign fundraiser in the GOP field, retired neurosurgeon Ben Carson.

But in an election shaped by a mounting distaste for the influence of big money, Clinton s long-standing ties to a cadre of wealthy patrons cuts against her efforts to cast herself as a champion of the middle class and a leader who will challenge the influence of large donors. After Bill Clinton s unsuccessful, labor-backed race for Congress, the couple hewed toward monied interests, courting banks and corporate leaders in Arkansas. It was a pattern that would repeat itself throughout their careers as they drew support from groups often in opposition: union leaders and corporate chiefs, trial lawyers and tech titans, top industrialists and liberal activists.

They have also been quick to seize on new sources of funds: Cuban Americans in Florida, Chinese immigrant communities in New York6 and wealthy figures around the world. And they have embraced bold new forms of fundraising, finding ways to inject corporate donations into political causes through nonprofit organizations in Arkansas and unregulated national party accounts. Most of all, the Clintons have excelled at leveraging access to their power and celebrity. Following the advice7 of a young Democratic Party finance chair named Terry McAuliffe, who is now governor of Virginia, the Clintons stepped up private meetings with major donors. Among the perks that President Clinton ultimately offered were overnights in the Lincoln Bedroom. After leaving office, Bill Clinton headlined high-wattage gatherings for foundation donors around the globe. And supporters this year are jockeying to host intimate receptions at their homes during which they get a chance to mingle with Hillary Clinton.

The Clintons steady cultivation of financial benefactors many of whom had interests before the government has led to charges of conflicts of interest and impropriety, such as Bill Clinton s end-of-term presidential pardons sought by donors. Among them was fugitive financier Marc Rich, whose wife, Denise, gave heavily to Democratic causes, including $450,000 for the Clinton Presidential Center in Little Rock8. The Post found that 2,700 loyal supporters those who have given to both Clintons have donated more than $129 million for their political races and legal needs. That is a fifth of the $600 million contributed by donors who gave more than $200.

How a small core of donors supplied a large share of the Clintons’ political support


The Washington Post found a small but influential group at the core of the Clintons fundraising network, which brought in $1 billion to support them politically, including $600 million from 290,000 known donors. The Clintons raised the bulk of the $1 billion for six major campaigns: Bill s two presidential races, Hillary s two elections to the Senate and her two runs for president. The Post identified 1 percent of donors who gave to support at least three of their political races. Donors who gave $200 or less are not required to be reported to the Federal Election Commission.

But that small percentage of loyal supporters gave a disproportionate share of the money raised, accounting for 22 percent of $600 million contributed by known donors. Another way to see the impact of loyal contributors is to look at those who have donated to support both Bill and Hillary. The Post has identified around 1 percent of donors who have backed both of them.

That loyal group has provided an outsize share of their funds: more than $129 million, about 21 percent of the $600 million in itemized contributions.

Elaine and Gerald Schuster, who made his fortune operating nursing homes and public housing developments, tangling with union leaders, government regulators and housing activists in the process. Together, the Boston-based couple have given 53 separate donations to support the Clintons since 1992, including $276,100 for their races and more than $500,000 to their foundation.

When my father died, the first person I heard from was President Clinton, said Elaine Schuster. They have a following of people who would do absolutely anything for them. Building such a financial network and nurturing it over four decades is not easy, even with the perks of office. Bill Clinton used his charisma and intellect to captivate new supporters.

And Hillary applied her characteristic attentiveness sending handwritten notes to celebrate engagements and new babies, and poetry books to comfort those in mourning to win over lifelong allies.

She remembers everything we ever talked about, said Susie Tompkins Buell, a close friend and co-founder of Esprit, who, with her husband, Mark, has given $420,000 to the Clintons campaigns and $11.25 million to their foundation.

Hillary does not like to ask for money, Buell added. It s not natural for her. But she s got really good people who work for her who speak for her, and she s very, very appreciative when she knows someone has done something for her. And you know it s sincere. As she makes her second White House bid, Hillary Clinton is raising money in a dramatically different environment than her past campaigns. Since then, the Supreme Court has made it easier for wealthy individuals, corporations and unions to spend huge, unregulated sums on political activity.

She has shown a willingness to embrace the new fundraising techniques. This fall, her campaign set up a joint fundraising committee with the Democratic National Committee and 32 state committees that can accept up to $356,100 per year from an individual donor the first 2016 candidate to pursue such a tactic9. And, unlike Sanders, she has sanctioned big-money super PACs working on her behalf, including one coordinating directly10 with her campaign. That has given the senator from Vermont an opening.

I don t think it s good enough just to talk the talk on campaign finance reform. You ve got to walk the walk, he said to loud applause at a South Carolina forum hosted by MSNBC on Nov.

6, adding, I am not asking millionaires and billionaires for large campaign contributions.

Schwerin said that Clinton has fought for stricter campaign finance rules throughout her career and plans to make the issue a major part of her agenda as president.

In the meantime, however, she will not unilaterally disarm, especially given how Republicans are promising to spend record amounts to tear her down, he added. If she secures the Democratic nomination, she is expected to bring in $1 billion during this election cycle possibly matching what she and her husband collected for all their previous campaigns combined. To do so, the former secretary of state is leaning on longtime Clinton patrons. Among the 264 individuals or couples who have already raised large sums for her campaign or hosted fundraising events through October are a core of loyal backers who personally contributed at least $73 million to support the Clintons over the years.

But her top fundraisers this year have included two dozen donors who had never before given money to either Clinton, according to The Post s analysis. More than two decades ago, one of the nation s richest executives signed on early to support Bill Clinton s move to the national stage. In November 1991, Sam M.

Walton, the conservative founder of Wal-Mart, sent an unlikely missive to all his corporate managers: He asked them to donate to Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton s presidential bid. The billionaire retailer was a staunch Republican and fiercely anti-union. The young Democratic governor had entered state politics with the enthusiastic backing of organized labor. But Walton had come to respect Clinton and his wife, who had served on his company s board for five years.

Walton said he still planned to vote for President George H.W. Bush but would do everything he could to help Clinton secure the Democratic nomination.

I assure you the Walton family will join many others across the nation to provide Bill maximum financial assistance as well as other campaign support, Walton wrote in a two-page memo obtained by The Post. Walton s relationship with the Clintons illustrated how the young couple won over the state s business elite, often to the dismay of their union supporters. Walton first got to know Hillary Clinton in 1983, when her husband tapped her to chair a state educational standards commission. Her panel rolled out a major reform proposal, one that eventually called for required teacher competency testing an idea abhorrent to the teachers unions.

But the initiative was embraced by Arkansas corporate leaders, who hoped bolstering the state s long-flagging school system would spur investment and economic expansion. Walton led an elite group of Arkansas executives the Good Suits Club who helped the Clintons sell the program.

Thomas Mack McLarty, a close Clinton friend who was then chief executive of the leading gas utility in the state and one of the dozen business leaders who participated in the effort. In a little-known episode, the Clintons and their business allies used a then-novel political tactic to build support for the initiative, financing two nonprofit organizations that touted the need for the education overhaul. The measure was bitterly opposed by teachers unions. A leader of the Arkansas Education Association, Peggy Nabors, wrote in a November 1983 letter to teachers around the state that the Clintons proposal had done inestimable damage to the teaching profession, according to a copy obtained by The Post.

As Hillary Clinton toured Arkansas to promote the reform package, she encountered fierce opposition. It s hard. But someday they ll understand, her longtime friend Diane Blair recalled her saying, according to a Clinton biography by Carl Bernstein. The hotly contested measure passed, and the initiative, which included more money for public schools, eventually yielded improvements in Arkansas educational system.

Just as Hillary Clinton predicted, the teachers unions came around. Although other Arkansas labor leaders remained deeply disappointed by the Clinton record, Nabors had become an avid supporter by the time Bill Clinton ran for president in 1992, joining the campaign to tout his education record.

We disagreed strongly on that one issue but were in agreement on so many others, she said in an interview. Nabors said she told the Clintons, Everyone has the opportunity to be wrong at least once, and this was yours. Today, the two major national teachers unions rank among the Clintons biggest supporters.

The National Education Association has contributed at least $1.3 million to bolster their races, while the American Federation of Teachers has given more than $756,000 to support them politically and at least $1 million to their foundation. In July, AFT endorsed11 Hillary Clinton s 2016 presidential bid the first national union to do so. The Clintons Arkansas experience would prove to be a template for their national approach. Time and again, they sided with business interests, infuriating their liberal allies. But the estrangement was rarely permanent.

They made a very conscious move toward the center, in part probably because of fundraising demands and in part because of ideology, said Andrew Stern, former president of the Service Employees International Union.

They believe as I do that the Democratic Party has to be pro-growth. By the time the Clintons left Arkansas, they had forged strong relationships with the state s power structure. Hillary Clinton was a corporate lawyer at the Rose Law Firm, the embodiment of the Little Rock establishment. She had become good friends with James B. Blair, an early donor to Bill Clinton and counsel to Tyson Foods, who encouraged her to join him in investing in commodity futures, where she parlayed a $1,000 initial investment into a $100,000 profit. And she had served on several company boards, including Wal-Mart, which gave her more than $100,000 in stock options.

Walton and his wife, Helen, who both wrote $1,000 checks to Bill Clinton in 1991, did not donate to Clinton campaigns after that race. But their daughter, Alice Walton, has remained an ally, contributing $25,000 to Ready for Hillary, a super PAC that laid the groundwork for her 2016 bid. And Wal-Mart itself has been a big supporter of the Clinton Foundation12, donating close to $1.2 million to finance student-run charitable projects and paying $370,000 in membership fees since 2008, according to a company spokesman. Other key alliances took root in Arkansas. It was in Little Rock that Bill Clinton met Charlie Trie, the owner of a small restaurant who would later plead guilty to a scheme13 to funnel illegal donations originating in China into Democratic Party coffers. Clinton s friendships with Arkansans such as producer Harry Thomason and actor Mary Steenburgen helped open doors in Hollywood, a key source of money for later campaigns.

And his connections to the state s banking families would later help him deftly navigate Wall Street. As a young Democratic finance staffer, Matt Gorman was one of the first to get a look at the national fundraising network that then-Gov. Bill Clinton had started building from his base in Arkansas. It was a box crammed with business cards, Georgetown University alumni newsletters and cocktail napkins scrawled with notes such as, Call me if you ever run for president.

I never saw anything like it, said Gorman, who was handed the box when he arrived in Little Rock in August 1991. Gorman sorted the motley collection into 50 manila envelopes one for each state other than Arkansas, as well as Puerto Rico and began appealing to skeptical party financiers to back the little-known governor in his bid for the White House.

From those humble origins, the Clintons constructed an unsurpassed fundraising operation that soon reached into every major industry from venerable Wall Street institutions to emerging powers in Silicon Valley. It began with the sheer force of Bill Clinton, up close.

Ken Brody, a Goldman Sachs executive who had gotten to know the young governor through the centrist Democratic Leadership Council, brought Clinton to a small dinner party in Manhattan in 1991. There, he bowled over the group of 15 influential bankers and media executives, including then-Goldman Sachs co-chairman Robert Rubin.

It was a remarkable evening, Rubin recounted in an oral history he gave for the William J. Clinton Presidential History Project. It was about three hours or thereabouts, and he engaged with people in a way that nobody else I had seen in political life had, that sort of give and take.

I left there thinking to myself, This is a very impressive guy. Rubin joined Clinton s campaign as an economic adviser, and other Goldman Sachs partners mobilized their networks to raise money for the upstart candidate. Across the country, Clinton had a similar impact on the conservative businessmen who then ran Silicon Valley.

At a brunch organized by Democratic fundraiser Gloria Rose Ott at the newly opened Fairmont Hotel in San Jose, the Arkansas governor dazzled the guests, including Apple chief executive John Sculley and Hewlett-Packard president John Young, both longtime Republicans.

He had a stunning conversance about what we were doing here and why people should be paying attention to Silicon Valley, said former California state controller Steve Westly, an early executive at eBay. Sculley and Young helped draft the campaign s high-tech policy. And in September 1992, they were among more than 20 top industry leaders many of them lifelong GOP backers who held a news conference14 endorsing Clinton. That night, venture capitalist Sanford Robertson hosted a $5,000-a-couple fundraiser for Clinton at his historic San Francisco mansion with other industry leaders, helping raise more than $300,000 for the campaign.

Once in office, Clinton brought many of his new friends from Wall Street and the tech sector to Washington. Sculley had a seat next to Hillary Clinton at her husband s first State of the Union address. Ott was appointed to the Overseas Private Investment Corporation. Brody was named the head of the Export-Import Bank. And Rubin was tapped to lead the National Economic Council, eventually becoming treasury secretary. Like-minded Wall Streeters such as investment banker Roger Altman joined him in the new administration, and early on they helped craft an economic policy known as Rubinomics that was applauded by Wall Street but viewed critically by many on the left.

When then-first lady Hillary Clinton decided to run for the Senate in New York in 2000, she turned to Rubin and Altman to introduce her to key players on Wall Street. Wall Street s influence prevailed during most of Bill Clinton s presidency but ran into an unexpected hurdle late in his second term thanks in part to his wife. At the time, big banks and allied businesses had formed a powerful lobbying coalition seeking more clout in recovering assets in the growing number of personal bankruptcies.

Labor leaders and Harvard Law School professor Elizabeth Warren led opposition to the bill, arguing it would hurt debt-burdened families while enriching the banking sector. For help, Warren turned to the first lady, who came to her Harvard Law School office in 1998 and discussed the measure at length.

A Fighting Chance. 15

Hillary Clinton joined with Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.), writing letters and calling members of Congress to oppose the bank-sponsored legislation. But after a costly, intense lobbying campaign during which President Clinton stayed silent the bill passed Congress in 2000. Then, in the waning days of his administration, the president disappointed the bankers and left the bill unsigned, effectively vetoing it. He did so after having been urged on by his wife, Warren wrote.

A year later, however, Hillary Clinton played a decidedly different role when she was faced with a similar bankruptcy bill as a freshman senator. She had just been elected with the strong support of the financial sector, which contributed $2.1 million of the $30 million she raised in 2000, one of the largest industries to back her, The Post s analysis found. The measure her husband had vetoed was reintroduced in Congress, and Clinton switched sides supporting it, along with 36 other Democrats.

She argued that the legislation had been improved since her earlier opposition. At her insistence, she said, sections were removed that would have ended special protection for child support payments. Even so, the bill which failed was vigorously opposed by consumer groups and unions that said it would harm the poor and vulnerable while giving huge advantages to banks, credit card companies and car dealers. Warren, who declined to comment for this article, later recalled Clinton s switch with some bitterness.

The bill was essentially the same, but Hillary Rodham Clinton was not, Warren wrote in her 2003 book, The Two-Income Trap, 16 published nine years before she was elected to the Senate. Big banks were now part of Senator Clinton s constituency, she added.

Clinton has since said she regrets her 2001 stance and opposed a similar bankruptcy bill when it was passed in 2005. (She missed the vote because her husband was in surgery.)

Over her political career, she has maintained close relations with the financial sector, which tops the list of industries that have supported her, according to The Post s analysis. Other major sectors that have backed her include the entertainment industry, health care and real estate. Since 2000, Hillary Clinton has raised $29.2 million from the PACs and employees of banks, hedge funds, securities firms and insurance companies, according to The Post analysis. During his political career, Bill Clinton raised $39.7 million from the same sector. In her current campaign, Clinton has pledged to rein in Wall Street.

She has proposed higher taxes on high-frequency traders and an end to special tax breaks for hedge fund managers, and recently called for more aggressive enforcement of criminal statutes that govern the finance industry. But her rhetoric has not alarmed her backers in the financial sector. So far, donors in the banking and insurance industries have given $6.4 million to her campaign and allied super PACs, behind only those in communications and technology, The Post found. Hillary Clinton is drawing enthusiastic support from Silicon Valley, one of the first industries to rally around her husband nearly a quarter-century ago.

Marc Benioff, chief executive of the cloud computing company, gave $50,000 with his wife, Lynne, to the Ready for Hillary super PAC in 2013. The next year, paid Hillary Clinton $451,000 to deliver two speeches.

Eric Schmidt, executive chairman of Alphabet, the parent company of Google, and one of the biggest players in the industry, has said he s a fan of Clinton.

And her campaign has hired a new start-up Schmidt helped bankroll called the Groundwork, which is developing cutting-edge technology to help engage supporters. Other top tech executives and entrepreneurs are jockeying to host events for her campaign. Among them: Michael and Xochi Birch, founders of the social networking company Bebo, who crammed 145 people into their San Francisco mansion in September for a breakfast reception with the candidate.

Hillary shows up with this great lineage and this incredible Rolodex she s cultivated over the years, Westly said. She has built a very, very strong base. The power of Hillary Clinton s donor base and its steady expansion was encapsulated by a 14-event cross-country fundraising sprint she did in late September, bringing in at least $4.4 million for her campaign in just six days.

Clinton started in New York, where John Zaccarro Jr., a real estate developer and son of the late Geraldine Ferraro, hosted 135 donors at his home. Zach Iscol, whose mother, Jill, is a close friend of Hillary Clinton, had another 100 contributors at his residence two days later. In New Jersey, Clinton headlined a fundraiser at the estate of public-relations executive Michael Kempner. Among the guests was New Jersey Senate Majority Leader Loretta Weinberg, who told the crowd about how she met the then-first lady two decades earlier to discuss legislation that would guarantee that new mothers could have an overnight hospital stay. A few days later, Clinton she was in California, mingling with Saban and other old Hollywood friends at the Brentwood home of studio chief Rob Friedman and his wife, Shari.

But she wasn t just feted by longtime family loyalists. The network now has new players such as Tracey Turner, a microfinance entrepreneur who held an event for Clinton at her home in Belvedere, Calif.

This is the first time I ve done anything remotely like this, Turner said. I have a daughter who is 6, and I thought, You know what, I want my daughter to be part of this moment in history. She pitched the campaign on an unusual idea a bring your child to meet the first woman president fundraiser.

And that s how 150 supporters and just as many kids gathered in Turner s yard on a Monday afternoon for a garden party that raised at least $400,000 for the campaign. Clinton ditched her stump speech and instead fielded questions from the kids.

Everyone went wild, recalled Turner, who said the former secretary of state fielded topics that ranged from the height of the Washington Monument to the plight of Syrian children. Later that evening, Clinton collected at least $310,000 more at the home of trial attorney Robert Shwarts and photographer-writer Joni Binder in Orinda, Calif. The couple have done little political fundraising, hosting just one previous reception for Clinton in 2007.

But they were eager to take part again this year.

It s intimate she s funny and she makes eye contact, and you feel like she s talking just to you, Binder said. When everyone walked out, no one s feet were touching the ground. You left hugging total strangers. Binder is now all in with the Clintons for the long haul.

I m at their beck and call, she said. I would do anything that they asked.

Clarification/correction: This story has been modified to clarify Virginia Gov. Terry McAuliffe s advice to Bill and Hillary Clinton on interacting with major donors. Another change corrects the figure for the amount that an individual can give to a joint committee raising funds for Hillary Clinton s campaign, the Democratic National Committee and state party committees.

Alice Crites, Rosalind S. Helderman and Dan Keating in Washington contributed to this report. Gold and Narayanswamy reported from Washington.

Hamburger reported from Little Rock and Fayetteville, Ark., and Washington.

How we did it

This project is an effort to identify every known donor who contributed to support Bill and Hillary Clinton over their four decades in public life. The findings come from Arkansas fundraising records; federal campaign finance data from the Federal Election Commission and the nonpartisan Center for Responsive Politics; legal defense fund contributions compiled by Political MoneyLine; and donor information disclosed by the Bill, Hillary and Chelsea Clinton Foundation. The findings were also drawn from interviews with more than 100 Clinton contributors, fundraisers and aides.

In all, The Post identified donations from roughly 336,000 individuals, corporations, unions and foreign governments who have supported the Clintons political or philanthropic endeavors.

Read more about our methodology.17


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