IP CCTV: What does pixel density mean exactly?

IN DEPTH An IP surveillance system may be used to observe and protect people, objects and people s activity inside and outside the objects, traffic and vehicles, money handling in banks, or games in casino environment. All of these objects of interest may have different clarity when displayed on a workstation screen. The image clarity depends primarily on the camera used, the imaging sensor, its lens and the distance from the object.

There is one parameter in IP CCTV that expresses the image clarity in a simple way with just one parameter: pixel density. The pixel density is usually expressed in pixels per metre (Pix/m), at the object plane, although it can be expressed in pixels per foot. Pixel density in IP CCTV sense should not be confused with the display pixel density quoted by various LCD display manufacturers which defines the screen density, in pixels per inch (PPI). The advantage of expressing object clarity with its pixel density is that it combines the sensor size, pixel count, focal length and distance to the object in just one parameter . When using pixel density metrics all variables are included and makes it universally understandable what details you will get on an operator s workstation screen. When designing a system, or a tender for a system, one can request pixel density for a particular image quality. So, instead of asking for a 6 mm lens for your camera in a particular location, for example (which means nothing without knowing the camera sensor it is used on), it would be much more useful if a particular pixel density is defined for the view. This will then be used to calculate the required lens for the particular camera used and the distance from the object. This will guarantee the clarity of the image (assuming the lens is focused optimally and there is sufficient light, of course).

Pixel density can be used for any object that IP CCTV user might be interested in: face, licence plate, playing card, money and similar. Let us now explore how many pixels per metre are attributed to various objects. One of the most commonly referred pixel densities is for Face Identification. Face Identification in CCTV means sufficient clarity of the image so that one can positively identify who the person on the screen is. According to Australian Standards AS4806.2, for Face Identification in analogue CCTV, we require 100% person s height to fit on the monitor screen display. The details of 100% person s height on a screen have been tested many times and it s been verified that they are sufficient for such a person to be identified. We know that PAL signal is composed of 576 active TV lines, so, according to AS4806.2, a person s height would occupy all of the active lines to make it 100%. Head occupies around 15% of a person s height, which is equivalent to around 86 lines (576 x 0.15 = 86.4), which is the same when converted to pixels (assuming recording is made full TV frame mode, which is equal to two TV fields). If we agree that an average person height is 170 cm, the head would occupy around 25 cm of that.

The pixel density at the object, which is required to make a positive Face Identification according to AS 4806.2, can be calculated to be 86 pixels at 25 cm of head height. Since there are 4 times 25 cm in 1 m of height, this becomes 4 x 86 = 344 pix/m. So, one can say that with pixel density of 344 pix/m at the objects plane it should be possible to positively identify a face, according to AS4806.2. Face Identification as per AS4806.2 Some other standards may require different values, and one such (newer) standard is the IEC 62676-4, which defines 250 pix/m to be sufficient (i.e. suggests that with slightly lesser pixel density than the AS standards one should be able to identify a person). Clearly, this number is not fixed in concrete, and it will depend on the observing ability of the operator, as well as other parameters (lens quality, illumination, compression artefacts, etc ), but the key is to understand that such a pixel density can be calculated for any type of camera, irrespective if that is SD, HD, 4k or any other format. The next image quality down, as defined by the standards is for Face Recognition. The details of Face Recognition image should be sufficient to recognise the gender of a person, what he/she is wearing and possibly make an assertion of who that person might be, if picked from a bunch of people that have already been identified somewhere else (e.g. passport or drivers licence photo).

This is basically an image with half the pixel density to the face identification, which according to AS4806.2 should be around 172 pix/m, while IEC62676-4 suggests 125 pix/m. Similarly, pixel density can be defined for vehicle licence plates visual recognition (not software automatic LPR). In the AS 4806.2, this is defined as 5% characters height on a display screen, which is around 30 TV lines (pixels) (to be very accurate 576 x 0.05 = 28.8). If we assume that a typical Australian number plate has characters of around 90 mm in height, than this equates to 11 x 30 pixels = 330 pix/m. The number 11 is obtained from dividing 1000 mm (1 m) with 90 mm. One may say that for visual licence plates recognition similar pixel density is required as for face identification. Licence plate recognition as per AS4806.2 When money and playing cards are observed in banks or casinos, many practical tests have shown that at least 50 pixels are required across the notes or cards longer side in order to positively identify the values. Standard playing cards dimensions are B8 according to ISO216 standard, which is 62 mm x 88 mm. So, we need the 88 mm card length to be covered with at least 50 pixels for proper identification.

This means around 550 pix/m (1000 mm / 88 mm = 11 => 50 pix x 11 = 550 pix/m) should be sufficient for playing cards. We may require slightly better pixel density for identifying money, since notes size is typically larger than playing cards, so if one takes the Face Inspection pixels density of 1000 pix/m, it should attain pretty good identification, although as it can be seen from the real life example below, even 770 pix/m might be sufficient. Playing cards and money shown above with 770 pix/m As it can be concluded from the above examples, the pixel density can be defined for any object and any camera, large or small. The beauty of the pixel density parameter is, as said at the very beginning, that includes all parameters influencing the clarity of the observed objects. For this reason, ViDi Labs has developed the ViDiLabs iOS calc (search the iTunes App Store under ViDiLabs calc ), a unique tool for the surveillance industry, which can also be used in cinematography, photography and any other imaging application dealing with objects details. So the following table can be used as a rough guide for various pixel densities. Free Download: The key to mitigating cybersecurity risks Exploiting IoT technology without creating cybersecurity vulnerabilities is one of the defining challenges in today s security landscape.

This report will help you to see why third parties should adhere to secure by design principles and why the necessary convergence of IT and security departments demands a holistic approach .

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Types of fire sprinkler systems: a guide to designs, colour codes and suppliers

Look at the ceiling of any public building and you ll notice that fire sprinkler systems are everywhere. To the untrained observer, one sprinkler system is probably very much the same as another. On the contrary, there are several different types of fire sprinkler systems.

Even the extinguishant varies according to the building s environment and temperature settings. Each solution is colour coded. The sprinkler system we are familiar with today has its roots in Hiram Stevens Maxim s 19th century design. After its patent ran out, Henry S Parmalee took on the design in 1874 to protect his piano factory. Incidentally, rather than being known for fire sprinklers, Hiram Stevens Maxim s biggest contribution to engineering was the flying machines ride at Pleasure Beach Blackpool from 1904. Back to modern sprinkler systems: there are eight different colour codes and eight varieties of sprinkler taps. This article aims to give you an easy-to-understand reference guide. Sprinkler tap designs The eight types of sprinkler taps: Conventional Horizontal sidewall Vertical sidewall Recessed pendant Concealed pendant Upright Pendant Concealed horizontal sidewall A sprinkler tap as most laypersons would recognise them would be the conventional, upright versions. Conventional systems have a spherical system of distribution which points to the ground like a shower head.

Similarly designed, though with nozzles pointing downwards, pendant sprinkler systems work in a similar way, but are recessed, concealed and less intrusive. The concealed pendant tap is discreet, with a baffle to mask the nozzle. They are popular in offices and public buildings. Horizontal and vertical sidewall sprinklers (including concealed horizontal sidewall versions) have more functions than standard sprinkler systems. Sprinkler colour codes As well as the nozzle, another key part of any sprinkler system is the bulb. The bulb can vary in thickness. Colours vary according to temperature settings, as detailed in the table below. The colour codes seen above relate to the glass bulb colour. Ordinary sprinkler systems have orange or red bulbs.

Intermediate, yellow or green. High temperature bulbs are coloured in blue up to 246 degrees Celsius, then purple up to 302 degrees Celsius, and black for anything above. These fall in the Very Extra High and Ultra High categories. Types of fire sprinkler systems There are four main types of fire sprinkler systems which are in common use: Wet Pipe; Dry Pipe; Deluge; Pre-Action. Wet Pipe Wet Pipe sprinkler systems are the most common type of sprinkler systems in use. They are seen in offices and houses and are so-called, as the water-based extinguishant is stored under pressure in its pipes. Activation is immediate. Dry Pipe Where pipes are likely to freeze, dry pipe sprinkler systems are an alternative to the standard wet pipe systems. Nitrogen gas or pressurised air is stored in the pipes, which are activated before being followed by water.

Unlike its wet pipe equivalents, there is a slight delay. Deluge Deluge sprinkler systems are typically used in areas where rapid fire damage is a major concern. For example, warehouse loading bays and high rise windows. They are similar in design to wet pipe installations though with one major difference: the nozzle is always open. Another difference is how a deluge-based sprinkler is triggered. This is via a special alarm that opens a water release valve. Pre-Action The pre-action sprinkler system is a combination of wet pipe and dry pipe sprinkler systems. They are typically used in areas at high risk of water damage. Water isn t stored in the pipes until a fire detection system detects a fire.

Firstly, the device opens a valve within the pipes that releases the water. This occurs prior to the opening of the sprinkler heads. On opening, its response time is as fast as a standard wet pipe sprinkler system. You can find more articles about sprinklers and other topics on fire safety at the Triangle Fire Systems blog. Who makes fire sprinkler systems? The world s leading manufacturer in fire sprinkler systems is Tyco Fire Protection Products. They are a multinational company formed in 1960 by Arthur J. Rosenberg with fire protection and security products the mainstay of their business. Their HQ is situated in Cork, Republic of Ireland.

Another principal manufacturer is Wormald International. They are an Australian company, whom at one time, were a subsidiary of Tyco International. They were formed in 1889 by brothers, Joseph Dawson Wormald and Henry Percy Wormald. Both left Edinburgh for Australia to import Mather and Platt s systems, manufactured in Newton Heath, Manchester. After being a subsidiary of Tyco, they were bought by New York City based private equity company, Evergreen Capital, L.P. (Australia, Fiji) in 2016. There is also a number of independent companies. A great many, based in the UK, are members of the British Automatic Fire Sprinkler Association.

The professional body was formed in 1974 and has affiliations with overseas bodies like the American Fire Sprinkler Association.

More sprinkler articles

Bouncer (doorman) – Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Bouncer (doorman or door supervisor) Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia Modern bouncers standing at the door of a club in San Francisco, California Occupation Names Security guard, doorman Occupation type Employment Activity sectors Security, entertainment Description Competencies Communication skills, judgment, even-temperedness Education required Some jurisdictions require completion of training Related jobs Doorman, security guard Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer in front of a strip club in San Francisco, California

A bouncer (also known as a doorman, door supervisor or cooler) is a type of security guard, employed at venues such as bars, nightclubs, ranches or concerts to provide security, check legal age, to refuse entry for intoxication, aggressive behavior or non-compliance with statutory or establishment rules. Bouncers are often required where crowd size, clientele or alcohol consumption may make arguments or fights a possibility, or where the threat or presence of criminal gang activity is high. In the United States, civil liability and court costs related to the use of force by bouncers are “the highest preventable loss found within the bar industry”, as many United States bouncers are often taken to court and other countries have similar problems of excessive force. In many countries, federal or state governments have taken steps to professionalise the industry by requiring bouncers to have training, licensing, and a criminal records background check.


In the 1990s and 2000s, increased awareness of the risks of lawsuits and criminal charges have led many bars and venues to train their bouncers to use communication and conflict resolution skills rather than brute force against troublemakers. However, the earlier history of the occupation suggests that the stereotype of bouncers as rough, tough, physical enforcers has indeed been the case in many countries and cultures throughout history. Historical references also suggest that the ‘doorman’ function of guarding a place and selecting who can have entry to it (the stereotypical task of the modern bouncer) could at times be an honorific and evolve into a relatively important position.

Ancient times

The significance of the doorman as the person allowing (or barring) entry is found in a number of Mesopotamian myths (and later in Greek myths descended from them), including that of Nergal overcoming the seven doormen guarding the gates to the Underworld.12

In 1 Chronicles 26 of the Old Testament, the Levitical Temple is described as having a number of ‘gatekeepers’ amongst their duties are “protecting the temple from theft”, from “illegal entry into sacred areas” and “maintaining order”, all functions they share with the modern concept of the bouncer, though the described temple servants also serve as holy persons and administrators themselves3 (it is noted that some administrative function is still present in today’s bouncing in the higher position of the supervisor). Doormen or bouncers are usually larger persons who display great strength and size

The Romans had a position known as the ‘Ostiarius‘ (doorkeeper), initially a slave, who guarded the door, and sometimes ejected unwanted people from the house whose gate he guarded. The term later become a low-ranking clergy title.4

Plautus, in his play Bacchides (written approximately 194 184 BC), mentions a “large and powerful” doorman / bouncer as a threat to get an unwelcome visitor to leave.5

Tertullian, an early Christian author living mainly in the 1st century AD, while reporting on the casual oppression of Christians in Carthage, noted that bouncers were counted as part of a semi-legal underworld, amongst other ‘shady’ characters such as gamblers and pimps.6

Modern times

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, US saloon-keepers and brothel madams hired bouncers to remove troublesome, violent, or dead-drunk patrons, and protect the saloon girls and prostitutes. The word “bouncer” was first popularized in a novel by Horatio Alger, Jr., called The Young Outlaw, which was first published in 1875. Alger was an immensely popular author in the 19th century, especially with young people and his books were widely quoted. In Chapter XIV, entitled “Bounced”, a boy is thrown out of a restaurant because he has no money to pay for his dinner:

“Here, Peter, you waited on this young man, didn’t you?” “Yes, sir.” “He hasn’t paid for his breakfast, and pretends he hasn’t got any money. Bounce him!” If Sam was ignorant of the meaning of the word ‘bounce,’ he was soon enlightened. The waiter seized him by the collar, before he knew what was going to happen, pushed him to the door, and then, lifting his foot by a well-directed kick, landed him across the sidewalk into the street. This proceeding was followed by derisive laughter from the other waiters who had gathered near the door, and it was echoed by two street urchins outside, who witnessed Sam’s ignominious exit from the restaurant.

Sam staggered from the force of the bouncing, and felt disgraced and humiliated to think that the waiter who had been so respectful and attentive should have inflicted upon him such an indignity, which he had no power to resent.

An 1883 newspaper article stated that “‘The Bouncer’ is merely the English ‘chucker out’. When liberty verges on license and gaiety on wanton delirium, the Bouncer selects the gayest of the gay, and bounces him!”7

19th century

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia An Arizona saloon in 1885, from the era when bouncers earned their rough and tumble reputation by forcibly ejecting brawlers

In US Western towns in the 1870s, high-class brothels known as “good houses” or “parlour houses” hired bouncers for security and to prevent patrons from evading payment. “Good house”-style brothels “… considered themselves the cream of the crop, and the prostitutes working there scorned those who worked in (or out of) saloons, dance halls, and theatres.” The best bordellos looked like respectable mansions, with attractively decorated parlours, a game room and a dance hall. For security, “somewhere in every parlor house there was always a bouncer, a giant of a man who stayed sober to handle any customer who got too rough with one of the girls or didn’t want to pay his bill.” The “protective presence” of bouncers in high-class brothels was “… one of the reasons the girls considered themselves superior to lower-class free-lancers, who lacked any such shepherds.”8

In Wisconsin’s lumberjack days, bouncers would physically remove drinkers who were too drunk to keep buying drinks, and thus free up space in the bar for new patrons. The slang term ‘snake-room’ was used to describe a “…room off a saloon, usually two or three steps down, into which a bar-keeper or the bouncer could slide drunk lumber-jacks head first through swinging doors from the bar-room.”9 In the late 19th century, until Prohibition, bouncers also had the unusual role of protecting the saloon’s buffet. To attract business, “…many saloons lured customers with offers of a “free lunch” usually well salted to inspire drinking, and the saloon “bouncer” was generally on hand to discourage those with too hearty appetites”.10

In the late 19th century, bouncers at small town dances and bars physically resolved disputes and removed troublemakers, without worrying about lawsuits. In the main bar in one Iowa town, “…there were many quarrels, many fights, but all were settled on the spot. There were no court costs for the bouncers or the bar; only some aches and pains for the troublemakers.”11

In the 1880s and 1890s, bouncers were used to maintain order in the “The Gut”, the roughest part of New York’s Coney Island, which was filled with “ramshackle groups of wooden shanties”, bars, cabarets, fleabag hotels and brothels.

Huge bouncers patrolled these venues of vice and “roughly ejected anyone who violated the loose rules of decorum” by engaging in pick-pocketing, jewellry thieving, or bloody fights.12

During the 1890s, San Diego had a similarly rough waterfront area and redlight district called the ‘Stingaree‘, where bouncers worked the door at brothels. Prostitutes worked at the area’s 120 bawdy houses in small rooms, paying a fee to the procurer who usually was the bouncer or ‘protector’ of the brothel. The more expensive, higher-class brothels were called “parlour houses”, and they were “run most decorously”, and the “best of food and drink was served.” To maintain the high-class atmosphere at these establishments, male patrons were expected to act like gentlemen; “… if any customer did or said anything out of line, he was asked to leave. A bouncer made sure he did”.13

20th century

Bouncers in pre-World War I United States were also sometimes used as the guardians of morality. As ballroom dancing was often considered as an activity which could lead to immoral conduct if the dancers got too close, some of the more reputable venues had bouncers to remind patrons not to dance closer than nine inches to their partners. The bouncers’ warnings tended to consist of light taps on the shoulder at first, and then progressed to sterner remonstrations.14

In the 1930s, bars in the bawdiest parts of Baltimore, Maryland docks hired bouncers to maintain order and eject aggressive patrons. The Oasis club, operated by Max Cohen, hired “…a lady bouncer by the name of Mickey Steele, a six-foot acrobat from the Pennsylvania coal fields. Mickey was always considerate of the people she bounced; first asking them where they lived and then throwing them in that general direction.

She was succeeded by a character known as ‘Machine-Gun Butch’ who was a long-time bouncer at the club”.15

In the Weimar Republic in the Germany of the 1920s and early 1930s, doormen protected venues from the fights caused by Nazis and other potentially violent groups (such as Communists). Such scenes were fictionalised in the movie Cabaret. Hitler surrounded himself with a number of former bouncers such as Christian Weber;16 the SS originated as a group designated to protect party meetings.17

In early Nazi Germany, some bouncers in underground jazz clubs were also hired to screen for Nazi spies, because jazz was considered a “degenerate” form of music by the Nazi party.18 Later during the Nazi regime, bouncers also increasingly barred non-German people (such as foreign workers) from public functions, such as ‘German’ dances at dance halls.19

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia The doorman from the Ohio-Bar in Berlin in 1948

Bouncers also often come into conflict with football hooligans, due to the tendency of groups of hooligans to congregate at pubs and bars before and after games. In the United Kingdom for example, long-running series of feuds between fan groups like The Blades and groups of bouncers in the 1990s were described by researchers.20

Bouncers have also been known to be associated with criminal gangs, especially in places like Russia, Hong Kong or Japan, where bouncers may often belong to these groups or have to pay the crime syndicates to be able to operate.21 In Hong Kong, triad-connected reprisal or intimidation attacks against bouncers have been known to occur.22

Hong Kong also features a somewhat unusual situation where some bouncers are known to work for prostitutes, instead of being their pimps. Hong Kong police have noted that due to the letter of the law, they sometimes had to charge the bouncer for illegally extorting the women when the usually expected dominance situation between the sex worker and her ‘protector’ was in fact reversed.23

In the 1990s and 2000s, a number of bouncers have written “tell-all” books about their experiences on the door. They indicate that male bouncers are respected by some club-goers as the ultimate ‘hard men’, while at the same time, these bouncers can also be lightning rods for aggression and macho posturing on the part of obnoxious male customers wanting to prove themselves.24 Bouncing has also started to attract some academic interest as part of ethnographic studies into violent subcultures. Bouncers were selected as one of the groups studied by several English researchers in the 1990s because their culture was seen as ‘grounded in violence’, as well as because the group had increasingly been ‘demonised’, especially in common liberal discourse (see Research section of this article).25

Research and sociology

Outside studies

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer stands outside a pawn shop.

In the early 1990s, an Australian government study on violence stated that violent incidents in public drinking locations are caused by the interaction of five factors: aggressive and unreasonable bouncers, groups of male strangers, low comfort (e.g., unventilated, hot clubs), high boredom, and high drunkenness. The research indicated that bouncers did not play as large a role “… as expected in the creation of an aggressive or violence prone atmosphere in bars.” However, the study did show that “…edgy and aggressive bouncers, especially when they are arbitrary or petty in their manner, do have an adverse effect.” The study stated that bouncers:

“…have been observed to initiate fights or further encourage them on several occasions.

Many seem poorly trained, obsessed with their own machismo, and relate badly to groups of male strangers. Some of them appear to regard their employment as giving them a licence to assault people. This may be encouraged by management adherence to a repressive model of supervision of patrons (“if they play up, thump ’em”), which in fact does not reduce trouble, and exacerbates an already hostile and aggressive situation. In practice many bouncers are not well managed in their work, and appear to be given a job autonomy and discretion that they cannot handle well.”26

A 1998 article “Responses by Security Staff to Aggressive Incidents in Public Settings” in the Journal of Drug Issues examined 182 violent incidents involving crowd controllers (bouncers) that occurred in bars in Toronto, Canada. The study indicated that in 12% of the incidents the bouncers had good responses, in 20% of the incidents, the bouncers had a neutral response; and in 36% of the incidents, the bouncers “… responses were rated as bad that is, the crowd controllers enhanced the likelihood of violence but were themselves not violent.” Finally, “… in almost one-third of incidents, 31 per cent, the crowd controllers’ responses were rated as ugly. The controllers’ actions involved gratuitous aggression, harassment of patrons and provocative behaviour.”27

Inside studies

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer at a pub wearing a distinctive striped shirt.

At least one major ethnographic study also observed bouncing from within, as part of a British project to study violent subcultures. Beyond studying the bouncer culture from the outside, the group selected a suitable candidate for covert, long-term research.

The man had previously worked as a bouncer before becoming an academic, and while conversant with the milieu, it required some time for him to re-enter bouncing work in a new locality.28 The study has, however, attracted some criticism due to the fact that the researcher, while fulfilling his duties as a bouncer and being required to set aside his academic distance, would have been at risk of losing objectivity though it was accepted that this quandary might be difficult to resolve.29

One of the main ethical issues of the research was the participation of the researcher in violence, and to what degree he would be allowed to participate. The group could not fully resolve this issue, as the undercover researcher would not have been able to gain the trust of his peers while shying away from the use of force. As part of the study it eventually became clear that bouncers themselves were similarly and constantly weighing up the limits and uses of their participation in violence. The research however found that instead of being a part of the occupation, violence itself was the defining characteristic, a “culture created around violence and violent expectation”.25

The bouncing culture’s insular attitudes also extended to the recruitment process, which was mainly by word of mouth as opposed to typical job recruitment, and also depended heavily on previous familiarity with violence. This does not extend to the prospective bouncer himself having to have a reputation for violence rather a perception was needed that he could deal with it if required. Various other elements, such as body language or physical looks (muscles, shaved heads) were also described as often expected for entry into bouncing being part of the symbolic ‘narratives of intimidation’ that set bouncers apart in their work environment.25

Training on the job was described as very limited, with the new bouncers being ‘thrown into the deep end’ the fact that they had been accepted for the job in the first place including the assessment that they should know what they are doing (though informal observation of a beginner’s behaviour was commonplace). In the case of the British research project, the legally required licensing as a bouncer was also found to be expected by employers before applicants started the job (and as licensing generally excluded people with criminal convictions, this kept out some of the more unstable violent personalities).25

Personality and behaviour


Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer at the door of a Norwegian club checking customer identification for proof of age.

Although a common stereotype of bouncers is that of the thuggish brute, a good club security staff member requires more than just physical qualities such as strength and size: “The best bouncers don t “bounce” anyone… they talk to people” (and remind them of the venue rules).3031

An ability to judge and communicate well with people will reduce the need for physical intervention, while a steady personality will prevent the bouncer from being easily provoked by customers. Bouncers also profit from good written communication skills, because they are often required to document assaults in an incident log or using an incident form.

Well-kept incident logs can protect the employee from any potential criminal charges or lawsuits that later arise from an incident.32

However, British research from the 1990s also indicates that a major part of both the group identity and the job satisfaction of bouncers is related to their self image as a strongly masculine person who is capable of dealing with and dealing out violence; their employment income plays a lesser role in their job satisfaction. Bouncer subculture is strongly influenced by perceptions of honour and shame, a typical characteristic of groups that are in the public eye,33 as well as warrior cultures in general. Factors in enjoying work as a bouncer were also found in the general prestige and respect that was accorded to bouncers, sometimes bordering on hero worship. The camaraderie between bouncers (even of different clubs), as well as the ability to work “in the moment” and outside of the drudgery of typical jobs were also often cited.34

The same research has also indicated that the decisions made by bouncers, while seeming haphazard to an outsider, often have a basis in rational logic. The decision to turn certain customers away at the door because of too casual clothing (face control) is for example often based on the perception that the person will be more willing to fight (compared to someone dressed in expensive attire). Many similar decisions taken by a bouncer during the course of a night are also being described as based on experience rather than just personality.35

Excessive force

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer gives the “thumbs up” signal.

Movies often depict bouncers physically throwing patrons out of clubs and restraining drunk customers with headlocks, which has led to a popular misconception that bouncers have (or reserve) the right to use physical force freely. However, in many countries bouncers have no legal authority to use physical force more freely than any other civilian meaning they are restricted to reasonable levels of force used in self defense, to eject drunk or aggressive patrons refusing to leave a venue, or when restraining a patron who has committed an offence until police arrive.3236 Lawsuits are possible if injuries occur, even if the patron was drunk or using aggressive language.32

With civil liability and court costs related to the use of force as “the highest preventable loss found within the industry…” (US)32 and bars being “sued more often for using unnecessary or excessive force than for any other reason” (Canada),37 substantial costs may be incurred by indiscriminate violence against patrons though this depends heavily on the laws and customs of the country. In Australia, the number of complaints and lawsuits against venues due to the behaviour of their bouncers has been credited with turning many establishments to using former police officers to head their in-house security, instead of hiring private firms.38

According to statistical research in Canada, bouncers are as likely to face physical violence in their work as urban-area police officers. The research also found that the likelihood of such encounters increased (with statistical significance) with the number of years the bouncer had worked in his occupation.39 Despite popular misconceptions, bouncers in Western countries are normally unarmed.4041 Some bouncers may carry weapons such as expandable batons for personal protection,42 but they may not have a legal right to carry a weapon even if they would prefer to do so.


Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer (wearing a black tennis shirt) controlling access to a well-known pawn shop.

Use of force training programs teach bouncers ways to avoid using force and explain what types of force are considered allowable by the courts.32 Some bars have gone so far as to institute policies barring physical contact, where bouncers are instructed to ask a drunk or disorderly patron to leave if the patron refuses, the bouncers call police. However, if the police are called too frequently, it can reflect badly on the venue upon renewal of its liquor licence.43

Another strategy used in some bars is to hire smaller, less threatening or female bouncers, because they may be better able to defuse conflicts than large, intimidating bouncers. The more ‘impressive’ bouncers, in the often tense environments they are supposed to supervise, are also often challenged by aggressive males wanting to prove their machismo.24 Large and intimidating bouncers, whilst providing an appearance of strong security, may also drive customers away in cases where a more relaxed environment is desired.31 In addition, female security staff, apart from having fewer problems searching female patrons for drugs or weapons and entering women’s washrooms to check for illegal activities, are also considered as better able to deal with drunk or aggressive women.44

In Australia, for example, women comprise almost 20% of the security industry and increasingly work the door as well, using “a smile, chat and a friendly but firm demeanor” to resolve tense situations.45 Nearly one in nine of Britain’s nightclub bouncers are also women, with the UK’s 2003 Licensing Act giving the authorities “discretionary power to withhold a venue’s licence if it does not employ female door staff.” This is credited with having “opened the door for women to enter the profession.”.44 However, female bouncers are still a rarity in many countries, such as in India, where two women who became media celebrities in 2008 for being “Punjab‘s first female bouncers” were soon sacked again after accusations of unbecoming behaviour.4647

Regulation and training

In many countries, a bouncer must be licensed and lacking a criminal record to gain employment within the security/crowd control sector. In some countries or regions, bouncers may be required to have extra skills or special licenses and certification for first aid, alcohol distribution, crowd control, or fire safety.


In Canada, bouncers have the right to use reasonable force to expel intoxicated or aggressive patrons. First, the patron must be asked to leave the premises. If the patron refuses to leave, the bouncer can use reasonable force to expel the patron. This has been upheld in a number of court cases.36 Under the definition of ‘reasonable force’, “it is perfectly acceptable for the bouncer to grab a patron s arm to remove the patron from the premises.” However, “Only in situations where employees reasonably believe that the conduct of the patron puts them in danger can they inflict harm on a patron and then only to the extent that such force is necessary for self defence.”36

In British Columbia, door staff security (bouncers) are required to become certified under the Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General Office.

The course called BST (Basic Security Training) is a 40-hour program that covers law, customer service, and other issue related to security operation. In Alberta, bar and nightclub security staff will have to take a new, government-run training course on correct bouncer behaviour and skills before the end of 2008. The six-hour ‘ProTect’ course will, among other subjects, teach staff to identify conflicts before they become violent, and how to defuse situations without resorting to force.48

In Ontario, courts have ruled that “a tavern owes a twofold duty of care to its patrons. It must ensure that it does not serve alcohol which would apparently intoxicate or increase the patron’s intoxication. further, it must take positive steps to protect patrons and others from the dangers of intoxication.” Regarding the second requirement of protecting patrons, the law holds that “customers cannot be ejected from your premises if doing so would put them in danger e.g., due to the patron’s intoxication. Bars can be held liable for ejecting a customer who they know, or should know, is at risk of injury by being ejected.”37

In Ontario, bartenders and servers have to have completed the Smart Serve Training Program, which teaches them to recognise the signs of intoxication. The Smart Serve program is also recommended for other staff in bars who have contact with potentially intoxicated patrons, such as bouncers, coat check staff, and valets.

The Smart Serve certification program encourages bars to keep Incident Reporting Logs, to use as evidence if an incident gets to court.37 With the August 2007 Private Security and Investigative Services Act, Ontario law also requires security industry workers, including bouncers to be licensed.49


The law defines bouncers as “security subsidiary unarmed operator” and they must have specific requisites:50

  • at least 18 years
  • no alcohol or drugs in preventive clinical analysis
  • mental and physical suitability
  • have not been convicted for any intentional crimes
  • at least lower high school diploma
  • follow a training course

Bouncers must not have any type of arm during their service even if they have a valid firearms license.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, as of 2011, Bouncers are required to have a COA (Certificate of approval). Like other security work, the person who has the COA has been vetted by the Police and cleared through security checks, as well as the Courts to show the person is suitable for the job, and knows New Zealand law to prevent Security Officers going to Court for using excessive force and assault on Patrons.51


Singapore requires all bouncers to undergo a background check and attend a 5-day ‘National Skills Recognition System’ course for security staff. However, many of the more professional security companies (and larger venues with their own dedicated security staff) have noted that the course is insufficient for the specific requirements of a bouncer and provide their own additional training.52

United Kingdom

In the UK, “door supervisors” as they are termed must hold a licence from the Security Industry Authority. The training for a door supervisor licence takes 32.5 hours since the current changes were implemented on the 1st January 2015, and includes issues such as behaviour, conflict management, civil and criminal law, search and arrest procedures, drug awareness, recording of incidents and crime scene preservation, licensing law, equal opportunities and discrimination, health and safety at work, physical intervention, and emergency procedures.53 Licenses must be renewed every three years. One current provider of training is the British Institute of Innkeeping Awarding Body. Licensed door supervisors must wear a blue plastic licence (often worn on the upper arm) whilst on duty.

The 2010 UK quango reforms includes the SIA amongst many other Quangos the coalition government intended to be disbanded, ostensibly on the overall grounds of cost, despite the SIA being essentially self-funding via licence payments. Whilst this may alleviate to some extent the financial burden on employers and individuals alike, some members of the industry sees this as a retrograde step, fearing a return of the organised criminal element to the currently regulated industry.

Republic of Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland all potential doormen (Bouncers) must complete a QQI level 4 course in Door Security Procedures. This allows them to apply for a PSA license (Private Security Authority). The PSA vet all applicants before issuing a license, Subsequently some past convictions will disqualify an applicant from working in the security industry. The license issued by the PSA entitles the holder of the license to work on pubs, clubs and event security. The PSA now requires you to have a licence to work in Event Security.

United States

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer with a bar’s hired stiltwalker in the East Village.

Requirements for bouncers vary from state to state, with some examples being:


In California, Senate Bill 194 requires any bouncer or security guard to be registered with the State of California Department of Consumer Affairs Bureau of Security and Investigative Services. These guards must also complete a criminal background check, including submitting their fingerprints to the California Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Californians must undertake the “Skills Training Course for Security Guards” before receiving a security licence. Further courses allow for qualified security personnel to carry batons upon completion of training.54

New York

In New York State, it is illegal for a bar owner to knowingly hire a felon for a bouncer position. Under Article 7 General Business Law, bars and nightclubs are not allowed to hire bouncers without a proper license. Under New York state law only a Private Investigator or Watch, Guard and Patrol Agency can supply security guards/bouncers to bars.55

Notable bouncers


  1. ^ Leick, Gwendolyn (1994). Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature. Routledge. p.

    252. ISBN 9780415065344. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  2. ^ Penglase, Charles (1997). Greek Myths and Mesopotamia: Parallels and Influence in the Homeric Hymns and Hesiod. Psychology Press. p.

    27. ISBN 9780415157063. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  3. ^ Hicks, John Mark (2001). 1 & 2 Chronicles.

    College Press. pp.

    229 230. ISBN 9780899008837. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  4. ^ Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). “Porter“. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  5. ^ Plautus; Terence; Berg, Deena; Douglass Parker (1999-03-12). Five Comedies: Miles Gloriosus, Menaechmi, Bacchides, Hecyra and Adelphoe. Hackett Publishing. p.

    193. ISBN 9780872203624. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  6. ^ De Fuga in Persecutione – Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, via The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XI, Second Edition, Page 393, Cambridge University Press, 1970
  7. ^ Unknown article nameLondon Daily News, Thursday 26 July 1883, via the Online Etymological Dictionary
  8. ^ The Ladies; God Bless ‘Em! – Shady Ladies of the Old West Jeffords, Christine; private homepage at
  9. ^ Snake-room (logging) (from Logger’s Words of Yesteryears Sorden, L.G.; Isabel J. Ebert; Madison, 1956, via
  10. ^ Drinking in America: A History – Search for Consensus: Drinking and the War Against Pluralism, 1860-1920 Lender, Mark Edward & Martin, James Kirby, The Free Press, New York, 1982
  11. ^ Schleswig, Iowa: The First 75 Years: Hohenzollern, Morgan Township: 1883-1899 compiled by Lillian M. (Kuehl) Jackso and Emma L. (Brasse) Struck, private homepage at
  12. ^ Coney Island – Early History (1881 1903) (from private website
  13. ^ When The Red Lights Went Out In San Diego” Macphail, Elizabeth, The Journal of San Diego History, Spring 1974, Volume 20, Number 2
  14. ^ 1914 – America, and the phonograph industry, on the verge of the Great War (from the ‘’ website. Accessed 2008-02-05.)
  15. ^ Baltimore’s Bawdy “Block” – Hull, Stephen; Stag, 1952 (at the moment only via Google cache)
  16. ^ Zalampas, Sherree Owens (1990-01-01). Adolf Hitler: A Psychological Interpretation of His Views on Architecture, Art, and Music. Popular Press. p.

    40. ISBN 9780879724887. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  17. ^ German Commanders of World War II. Osprey Publishing.

    1982. p.

    5. ISBN 9780850454338.

  18. ^ Huener, Jonathan; Nicosia, Francis R. (2006). The Arts in Nazi Germany: Continuity, Conformity, Change. Berghahn Books.


    96. ISBN 9781845452094. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  19. ^ Herbert, Ulrich (1997). Hitler’s Foreign Workers: Enforced Foreign Labor in Germany Under the Third Reich. Cambridge University Press. p.

    8. ISBN 9780521470001. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  20. ^ Armstrong, Gary (1998). Football Hooligans: Knowing the Score. Bloomsbury Academic. p.

    77. ISBN 9781859739570. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  21. ^ Hill, Peter B. E. (2006-01-26). The Japanese Mafia: Yakuza, Law, and the State.

    OUP Oxford. pp.

    23, 285. ISBN 9780199291618. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  22. ^ The victim, the exception – Hong Kong Stories feature, Journalism and Media Studies Centre, University of Hong Kong, 13 May 2007
  23. ^ Chu, Yiu-kong (2002-01-04). The Triads as Business. Taylor & Francis. p.

    101. ISBN 9780203030004. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  24. ^ a b Nightclub Bouncers Tell All – Tales from behind the velvet ropeThe Boston Phoenix, via the ‘’ website. Accessed 2008-02-02.
  25. ^ a b c d Get Ready To Duck Winlow, Simon; Hobbs, Dick; Lister, Stuart; Hadfield, Phillip; British Journal of Criminology, No 41, 2001, Pages 536 548. Accessed 2008-05-04.
  26. ^ Australian Violence: Contemporary Perspectives (PDF) – Chappell, Duncan; Grabosky, Peter & Strang, Heather; Australian Institute of Criminology, 1991
  28. ^ Get Ready To Duck – Winlow, Simon; Hobbs, Dick; Lister, Stuart; Hadfield, Phillip; British Journal of Criminology, No 41, 2001, Page 537. Accessed 2009-01-08.
  29. ^ Is there a place for covert research methods in criminology? – Wells, Helen M., Graduate Journal of Social Science, 2004, Vol.

    1 Issue 1. Accessed 2008-05-04.

  30. ^ Bouncers & Doormen (from the website, Accessed 2008-05-02.)
  31. ^ a b Bouncers to the rescueTimes of India, 2 May 2005
  32. ^ a b c d e Safety and Security for Liquor Licensees (from the Michigan Licensed Beverage Association‘s website. Accessed 2008-02-01.)
  33. ^ Get Ready To Duck – Winlow, Simon; Hobbs, Dick; Lister, Stuart; Hadfield, Phillip; British Journal of Criminology, No 41, 2001, Page 541.

    Accessed 2009-01-09.

  34. ^ Get Ready To Duck – Winlow, Simon; Hobbs, Dick; Lister, Stuart; Hadfield, Phillip; British Journal of Criminology, No 41, 2001, Pages 541-542. Accessed 2009-01-08.
  35. ^ Get Ready To Duck – Winlow, Simon; Hobbs, Dick; Lister, Stuart; Hadfield, Phillip; British Journal of Criminology, No 41, 2001, Page 543. Accessed 2009-01-08.
  36. ^ a b c Civil liability of commercial providers of alcohol (PDF) – Folick, Lorne P.S.; Dolden Wallace Folick, Vancouver, April 2005
  37. ^ a b c Did you know? (from the October 2005 newsletter of ‘Smart Serve Ontario’, Ontario, Canada)
  38. ^ ‘Cowardly’ bouncers terrorising pub, club patronsThe Australian, Wednesday 28 February 2007
  39. ^ Nightclub security and surveillance 1 (book excerpt from Policing the nightclub) – Rigakos, George S.; The Canadian Review of Policing Research, 2004. Accessed 2008-02-05.
  40. ^ a b Betty chats with the new hunk on the block, Vin DieselVin Diesel interview via ‘’. Accessed 2008-02-02.
  41. ^ “Gunfight at bar leaves one wounded, another in custody”, New Hampshire Union Leader, April 15, 2007
  42. ^ Baton and Handcuff course (from the ‘’ company website. Accessed 2008-02-02.)
  43. ^ “Police seek liquor license denials for two local bars”. The World. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
  44. ^ a b Why women want to join the clubThe Independent, Tuesday 3 October 2006, via
  45. ^ “Mate, Don’t Call These Bouncers Babe” (Abstract) New York Times, Wednesday, 18 April 2001
  46. ^ “Chandigarh’s brawny female bouncers ‘man’ nightclub” Nerve of India, Monday 28 July 2008
  47. ^ “Punjab’s first female bouncers lose their jobs” DNA India, Thursday 16 October 2008
  48. ^ Bouncers take course or they’re outEdmonton Journal, Saturday February 2, 2008
  49. ^ Private Investigators and Security Guards – Licensing (from the Ontario Ministry of Community Safety and Corrections website. Accessed 2008-02-05.)
  50. ^ Art.

    1 comma 4 law 6 october 2009, from a) to g)

  51. ^
  52. ^ How do clubs select bouncers? ‘It’s not just about wearing a black shirt’The Electric New Paper, Friday 1 February 2008
  53. ^ Get Licensed – SIA licensing criteria (PDF) (from the Security Industry Authority, Great Britain. Accessed 2008-05-02.)
  54. ^ New Security Guard Training Regulation (from the California Department of Consumer Affairs website.

    Accessed 2008-03-26.)

  55. ^ Last Call for the Falls? (blog entry on Village Voice, with further references)
  56. ^ 1 Harry Alsop, “Pope Francis: 20 things you didn’t know”, The Daily Telegraph 14 March 2013
  57. ^ 2, Accessed 2015-04-21.
  58. ^ History Files – Al Capone (from the Chicago History Museum website. Accessed 2008-02-02.)
  59. ^ 3 (from his official biography on Accessed 2011-06-11.)
  60. ^ “White: GSP more famous than Gretzky”. Sportsnet.

    5 December 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2012.

  61. ^ Mr T – Biography (from the ‘’ website. Accessed 2008-02-02.)
  62. ^ Cop doesn’t know how to stopThe New York Times, via ‘’ website. Accessed 2008-02-02.
  63. ^ From Bouncer to interview with Michael Clarke Duncan. Accessed 2008-02-02.
  64. ^
  65. ^ James Gandolfini bio, Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  66. ^ Testimony (from the ‘’ website.

    Accessed 2008-02-02.)

  67. ^ a b c
  68. ^ About (from the Official Lenny McLean website. Accessed 2008-02-02.)
  69. ^ Strongman Glenn just a gentle giant (article excerpt from The News Letter, Belfast, Northern Ireland, via ‘’. Accessed 2008-02-05.)
  70. ^ The Ravishing One :The Story Of Rick Rude a True Class Act.
  71. ^ “Doorman to world domination”.

    29 January 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2014.

  72. ^ Geoff Thompson (from the rdf management company website. Accessed 2008-02-02.)
  73. ^ The “Bouncer” Defense of Odontomachus Ruginodis and other Odontomachine Ants (Hymenoptera Formicidae) – Carlin, Norman F. & Gladstein, David, S., Psyche, 1989, Volume 96, No.

    1-2, Page 3

  74. ^ Committee, Great Britain: Parliament: House of Lords: European Union (2008-03-05). FRONTEX: the EU external borders agency, 9th report of session 2007-08, report with evidence. The Stationery Office. p.

    165. ISBN 9780104012321. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  75. ^ Ren, Xin (1997-01-01). Tradition of the Law and Law of the Tradition: Law, State, and Social Control in China. Greenwood Publishing Group.


    139. ISBN 9780313290961.

    Retrieved 8 May 2014.

Further reading

  • Jamie O’Keefe – Old School-New School: Guide to Bouncers, Security and Registered Door Supervisors, New Breed Publishing, August 1997. ISBN 0-9517567-6-1
  • Lee Morrison – Safe on the Door: The Complete Guide for Door Supervisors, Hodder Arnold, February 2006. ISBN 0-340-90575-1
  • Lee Morrison – Up Close, Nothing Personal: Practical Self-Protection for Door Security Staff, Apex Publishing, December 2003. ISBN 1-904432-25-5
  • Robin Barratt – Doing the doors: A Life on the Door, Milo Books, 1 February 2004, ISBN 1-903854-19-9
  • Robin Barratt – Confessions of a Doorman, Diverse Publications Ltd, 22 June 2006, ISBN 0-9548143-2-0
  • Robin Barratt – Bouncers and Bodyguards, Mainstream Publishing, 5 March 2006, ISBN 978-1-84596-458-0
  • Robin Barratt – Respect and Reputation – On The Doors, in Prison and in Life, Apex Publishing, June 2010, ISBN 978-1-906358-81-5
  • Ivan Holiday Arsenault – The Bouncer’s Bible, Turner Paige Publishing, 15 January 1999, ISBN 1-929036-00-0
  • Ivan Holiday Arsenault – The Cooler’s Grimiore, Outskirt Press Publishing, 6 July 2008, ISBN 1-4327-2641-2
  • Ivan Holiday Arsenault – Sun Tzu & The Art of Bouncing, Outskirt Press Publishing, 15 April 2011, ISBN 978-1-4327-7093-8
  • Ivan Holiday Arsenault – The Bouncer’s Bible – 2nd Edition, Outskirt Press Publishing, 19 July 2011, ISBN 978-1-4327-7089-1
  • George Rigakos – Nightclub: Bouncers, Risk, and the Spectacle of Consumption, McGill-Queen’s University Press May 2008 ISBN 978-0-7735-3362-2
  • Jason Dyson – Door Supervisors Course Book – National Door Supervisors Qualification, Highfield January 2010 ISBN 978-1-906404-84-0
  • Stu Armstrong – The Diaries of a Doorman Volume One
  • Stu Armstrong – The Diaries of a Doorman Vol 2
  • Stu Armstrong – The Diaries of a Doorman Vol 3
  • Stu Armstrong and Ryder Scott – So you want to be a bouncer

External links

Bartending Occupations

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia Alcoholic beverages

Non-alcoholic mixers


Garnishes Edible


People List of bartenders Terminology

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia Retrieved from “

Surveillance – Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about observing people’s actions and communications. For the article about monitoring the spread of diseases, see disease surveillance. For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). “Electronic surveillance” redirects here. For surveillance of electronic computer systems, see Computer surveillance. Surveillance - Wikipedia A ‘nest’ of surveillance cameras

Surveillance (/s r ve . ns/ or /s r ve l ns/)1 is the monitoring of the behavior, activities, or other changing information, usually of people for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting them.2 This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment (such as CCTV cameras),3 or interception of electronically transmitted information (such as Internet traffic or phone calls); and it can include simple, relatively no- or low-technology methods such as human intelligence agents and postal interception. The word surveillance comes from a French phrase for “watching over” (“sur” means “from above” and “veiller” means “to watch”), and is in contrast to more recent developments such as sousveillance.456

Surveillance is used by governments for intelligence gathering, the prevention of crime, the protection of a process, person, group or object, or for the investigation of crime. It is also used by criminal organizations to plan and commit crimes such as robbery and kidnapping, by businesses to gather intelligence, and by private investigators. Surveillance is often a violation of privacy, and is opposed by various civil liberties groups and activists.78Liberal democracies have laws which restrict domestic government and private use of surveillance, usually limiting it to circumstances where public safety is at risk. Authoritarian government seldom have any domestic restrictions; and international espionage is common among all types of countries.



Surveillance - Wikipedia Official seal of the Information Awareness Office — a U.S.

agency which developed technologies for mass surveillance Main article: Computer surveillance

The vast majority of computer surveillance involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet.9 In the United States for example, under the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act, all phone calls and broadband Internet traffic (emails, web traffic, instant messaging, etc.) are required to be available for unimpeded real-time monitoring by Federal law enforcement agencies.101112

There is far too much data on the Internet for human investigators to manually search through all of it. So automated Internet surveillance computers sift through the vast amount of intercepted Internet traffic and identify and report to human investigators traffic considered interesting by using certain “trigger” words or phrases, visiting certain types of web sites, or communicating via email or chat with suspicious individuals or groups.13 Billions of dollars per year are spent, by agencies such as the Information Awareness Office, NSA, and the FBI, to develop, purchase, implement, and operate systems such as Carnivore, NarusInsight, and ECHELON to intercept and analyze all of this data, and extract only the information which is useful to law enforcement and intelligence agencies.14

Computers can be a surveillance target because of the personal data stored on them. If someone is able to install software, such as the FBI’s Magic Lantern and CIPAV, on a computer system, they can easily gain unauthorized access to this data. Such software could be installed physically or remotely.15 Another form of computer surveillance, known as van Eck phreaking, involves reading electromagnetic emanations from computing devices in order to extract data from them at distances of hundreds of meters.1617 The NSA runs a database known as “Pinwale”, which stores and indexes large numbers of emails of both American citizens and foreigners.1819


Main articles: Phone surveillance and Lawful interception

The official and unofficial tapping of telephone lines is widespread. In the United States for instance, the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) requires that all telephone and VoIP communications be available for real-time wiretapping by Federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies.101112 Two major telecommunications companies in the U.S. AT&T Inc. and Verizon have contracts with the FBI, requiring them to keep their phone call records easily searchable and accessible for Federal agencies, in return for $1.8 million per year.20 Between 2003 and 2005, the FBI sent out more than 140,000 “National Security Letters” ordering phone companies to hand over information about their customers’ calling and Internet histories. About half of these letters requested information on U.S. citizens.21

Human agents are not required to monitor most calls. Speech-to-text software creates machine-readable text from intercepted audio, which is then processed by automated call-analysis programs, such as those developed by agencies such as the Information Awareness Office, or companies such as Verint, and Narus, which search for certain words or phrases, to decide whether to dedicate a human agent to the call.22

Law enforcement and intelligence services in the United Kingdom and the United States possess technology to activate the microphones in cell phones remotely, by accessing phones’ diagnostic or maintenance features in order to listen to conversations that take place near the person who holds the phone.232425262728

Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. The geographical location of a mobile phone (and thus the person carrying it) can be determined easily even when the phone is not being used, using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone.2930 The legality of such techniques has been questioned in the United States, in particular whether a court warrant is required.31 Records for one carrier alone (Sprint), showed that in a given year federal law enforcement agencies requested customer location data 8 million times.32

In response to customers privacy concerns in the post Edward Snowden era, Apple s iPhone 6 has been designed to disrupt investigative wiretapping efforts. The phone encrypts e-mails, contacts, and photos with a code generated by a complex mathematical algorithm that is unique to an individual phone, and is inaccessible to Apple.33 The encryption feature on the iPhone 6 has drawn criticism from FBI director James B.

Comey and other law enforcement officials since even lawful requests to access user content on the iPhone 6 will result in Apple supplying “gibberish” data that requires law enforcement personnel to either break the code themselves or to get the code from the phone s owner.33 Because the Snowden leaks demonstrated that American agencies can access phones anywhere in the world, privacy concerns in countries with growing markets for smart phones have intensified, providing a strong incentive for companies like Apple to address those concerns in order to secure their position in the global market.33

Although the CALEA requires telecommunication companies to build into their systems the ability to carry out a lawful wiretap, the law has not been updated to address the issue of smart phones and requests for access to e-mails and metadata.34 The Snowden leaks show that the NSA has been taking advantage of this ambiguity in the law by collecting metadata on “at least hundreds of millions” of “incidental” targets from around the world.34 The NSA uses an analytic tool known as CO-TRAVELLER in order to track people whose movements intersect and to find any hidden connections with persons of interest.34

The Snowden leaks have also revealed that the British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) can access information collected by the NSA on American citizens. Once the data has been collected, the GCHQ can hold on to it for up to two years. The deadline can be extended with the permission of a “senior UK official”.35


Main article: Closed-circuit television Surveillance - Wikipedia A surveillance camera in Cairns, Queensland Surveillance - Wikipedia Surveillance cameras such as these are installed by the millions in many countries, and are nowadays monitored by automated computer programs instead of humans.

Surveillance cameras are video cameras used for the purpose of observing an area. They are often connected to a recording device or IP network, and may be watched by a security guard or law enforcement officer. Cameras and recording equipment used to be relatively expensive and required human personnel to monitor camera footage, but analysis of footage has been made easier by automated software that organizes digital video footage into a searchable database, and by video analysis software (such as VIRAT and HumanID). The amount of footage is also drastically reduced by motion sensors which only record when motion is detected. With cheaper production techniques, surveillance cameras are simple and inexpensive enough to be used in home security systems, and for everyday surveillance.

In the United States, the Department of Homeland Security awards billions of dollars per year in Homeland Security grants for local, state, and federal agencies to install modern video surveillance equipment. For example, the city of Chicago, Illinois, recently used a $5.1 million Homeland Security grant to install an additional 250 surveillance cameras, and connect them to a centralized monitoring center, along with its preexisting network of over 2000 cameras, in a program known as Operation Virtual Shield. Speaking in 2009, Chicago Mayor Richard Daley announced that Chicago would have a surveillance camera on every street corner by the year 2016.3637

In the United Kingdom, the vast majority of video surveillance cameras are not operated by government bodies, but by private individuals or companies, especially to monitor the interiors of shops and businesses. According to 2011 Freedom of Information Act requests, the total number of local government operated CCTV cameras was around 52,000 over the entirety of the UK.38 The prevalence of video surveillance in the UK is often overstated due to unreliable estimates being requoted;39 for example one report in 2002 extrapolated from a very small sample to estimate the number of cameras in the UK at 4.2 million (of which 500,000 in Greater LondonNote 1).40 More reliable estimates put the number of private and local government operated cameras in the United Kingdom at around 1.85 million in 2011.4142

In the Netherlands, one example city where there are camera’s are The Hague. There, camera’s are placed in city districts in which the most illegal activity is concentrated. Examples are the red-light districts and the trainstations.43

As part of China’s Golden Shield Project, several U.S. corporations, including IBM, General Electric, and Honeywell, have been working closely with the Chinese government to install millions of surveillance cameras throughout China, along with advanced video analytics and facial recognition software, which will identify and track individuals everywhere they go. They will be connected to a centralized database and monitoring station, which will, upon completion of the project, contain a picture of the face of every person in China: over 1.3 billion people.44 Lin Jiang Huai, the head of China’s “Information Security Technology” office (which is in charge of the project), credits the surveillance systems in the United States and the U.K. as the inspiration for what he is doing with the Golden Shield project.44

Surveillance - Wikipedia A payload surveillance camera manufactured by Controp and distributed to the U.S. government by ADI Technologies

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is funding a research project called Combat Zones That See that will link up cameras across a city to a centralized monitoring station, identify and track individuals and vehicles as they move through the city, and report “suspicious” activity (such as waving arms, looking side-to-side, standing in a group, etc.).45

At Super Bowl XXXV in January 2001, police in Tampa, Florida, used Identix s facial recognition software, FaceIt, to scan the crowd for potential criminals and terrorists in attendance at the event 46 (it found 19 people with pending arrest warrants).47

Governments often48 initially claim that cameras are meant to be used for traffic control, but many of them end up using them for general surveillance. For example, Washington, D.C.

had 5,000 “traffic” cameras installed under this premise, and then after they were all in place, networked them all together and then granted access to the Metropolitan Police Department, so they could perform “day-to-day monitoring”.49

The development of centralized networks of CCTV cameras watching public areas linked to computer databases of people’s pictures and identity (biometric data), able to track people’s movements throughout the city, and identify whom they have been with has been argued by some to present a risk to civil liberties.50Trapwire is an example of such a network.51

Social network analysis

Surveillance - Wikipedia A graph of the relationships between users on the social networking site Facebook. Social network analysis enables governments to gather detailed information about peoples’ friends, family, and other contacts. Since much of this information is voluntarily made public by the users themselves, it is often consider to be a form of open-source intelligence

One common form of surveillance is to create maps of social networks based on data from social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter as well as from traffic analysis information from phone call records such as those in the NSA call database,52 and others. These social network “maps” are then data mined to extract useful information such as personal interests, friendships & affiliations, wants, beliefs, thoughts, and activities.535455

Many U.S. government agencies such as the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the National Security Agency (NSA), and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are investing heavily in research involving social network analysis.5657 The intelligence community believes that the biggest threat to U.S. power comes from decentralized, leaderless, geographically dispersed groups of terrorists, subversives, extremists, and dissidents. These types of threats are most easily countered by finding important nodes in the network, and removing them. To do this requires a detailed map of the network.585960

Jason Ethier of Northeastern University, in his study of modern social network analysis, said the following of the Scalable Social Network Analysis Program developed by the Information Awareness Office:

The purpose of the SSNA algorithms program is to extend techniques of social network analysis to assist with distinguishing potential terrorist cells from legitimate groups of people…. In order to be successful SSNA will require information on the social interactions of the majority of people around the globe. Since the Defense Department cannot easily distinguish between peaceful citizens and terrorists, it will be necessary for them to gather data on innocent civilians as well as on potential terrorists.

Jason Ethier58

AT&T developed a programming language called “Hancock”, which is able to sift through enormous databases of phone call and Internet traffic records, such as the NSA call database, and extract “communities of interest” groups of people who call each other regularly, or groups that regularly visit certain sites on the Internet. AT&T originally built the system to develop “marketing leads”,61 but the FBI has regularly requested such information from phone companies such as AT&T without a warrant,61 and after using the data stores all information received in its own databases, regardless of whether or not the information was ever useful in an investigation.62

Some people believe that the use of social networking sites is a form of “participatory surveillance”, where users of these sites are essentially performing surveillance on themselves, putting detailed personal information on public websites where it can be viewed by corporations and governments.53 In 2008, about 20% of employers reported using social networking sites to collect personal data on prospective or current employees.63


Surveillance - Wikipedia Fingerprints being scanned as part of the US-VISIT program Main article: Biometrics

Biometric surveillance is a technology that measures and analyzes human physical and/or behavioral characteristics for authentication, identification, or screening purposes.64 Examples of physical characteristics include fingerprints, DNA, and facial patterns. Examples of mostly behavioral characteristics include gait (a person’s manner of walking) or voice.

Facial recognition is the use of the unique configuration of a person’s facial features to accurately identify them, usually from surveillance video. Both the Department of Homeland Security and DARPA are heavily funding research into facial recognition systems.65 The Information Processing Technology Office, ran a program known as Human Identification at a Distance which developed technologies that are capable of identifying a person at up to 500 ft by their facial features. Another form of behavioral biometrics, based on affective computing, involves computers recognizing a person’s emotional state based on an analysis of their facial expressions, how fast they are talking, the tone and pitch of their voice, their posture, and other behavioral traits.

This might be used for instance to see if a person’s behavior is suspect (looking around furtively, “tense” or “angry” facial expressions, waving arms, etc.).66

A more recent development is DNA profiling, which looks at some of the major markers in the body’s DNA to produce a match. The FBI is spending $1 billion to build a new biometric database, which will store DNA, facial recognition data, iris/retina (eye) data, fingerprints, palm prints, and other biometric data of people living in the United States. The computers running the database are contained in an underground facility about the size of two American football fields.676869

The Los Angeles Police Department is installing automated facial recognition and license plate recognition devices in its squad cars, and providing handheld face scanners, which officers will use to identify people while on patrol.707172

Facial thermographs are in development, which allow machines to identify certain emotions in people such as fear or stress, by measuring the temperature generated by blood flow to different parts of their face.73 Law enforcement officers believe that this has potential for them to identify when a suspect is nervous, which might indicate that they are hiding something, lying, or worried about something.73


Further information: Surveillance aircraft Surveillance - Wikipedia Micro Air Vehicle with attached surveillance camera

Aerial surveillance is the gathering of surveillance, usually visual imagery or video, from an airborne vehicle such as an unmanned aerial vehicle, helicopter, or spy plane. Military surveillance aircraft use a range of sensors (e.g. radar) to monitor the battlefield. Digital imaging technology, miniaturized computers, and numerous other technological advances over the past decade have contributed to rapid advances in aerial surveillance hardware such as micro-aerial vehicles, forward-looking infrared, and high-resolution imagery capable of identifying objects at extremely long distances. For instance, the MQ-9 Reaper,74 a U.S.

drone plane used for domestic operations by the Department of Homeland Security, carries cameras that are capable of identifying an object the size of a milk carton from altitudes of 60,000 feet, and has forward-looking infrared devices that can detect the heat from a human body at distances of up to 60 kilometers.75 In an earlier instance of commercial aerial surveillance, the Killington Mountain ski resort hired ‘eye in the sky’ aerial photography of its competitors’ parking lots to judge the success of its marketing initiatives as it developed starting in the 1950s.76

Surveillance - Wikipedia HART program concept drawing from official IPTO (DARPA) official website

The United States Department of Homeland Security is in the process of testing UAVs to patrol the skies over the United States for the purposes of critical infrastructure protection, border patrol, “transit monitoring”, and general surveillance of the U.S. population.77 Miami-Dade police department ran tests with a vertical take-off and landing UAV from Honeywell, which is planned to be used in SWAT operations.78 Houston’s police department has been testing fixed-wing UAVs for use in “traffic control”.78

The United Kingdom, as well, is working on plans to build up a fleet of surveillance UAVs ranging from micro-aerial vehicles to full-size drones, to be used by police forces throughout the U.K.79

In addition to their surveillance capabilities, MAVs are capable of carrying tasers for “crowd control“, or weapons for killing enemy combatants.80

Programs such as the Heterogeneous Aerial Reconnaissance Team program developed by DARPA have automated much of the aerial surveillance process. They have developed systems consisting of large teams drone planes that pilot themselves, automatically decide who is “suspicious” and how to go about monitoring them, coordinate their activities with other drones nearby, and notify human operators if something suspicious is occurring. This greatly increases the amount of area that can be continuously monitored, while reducing the number of human operators required. Thus a swarm of automated, self-directing drones can automatically patrol a city and track suspicious individuals, reporting their activities back to a centralized monitoring station.818283 In addition, researchers also investigate possibilities of autonomous surveillance by large groups of micro aerial vehicles stabilized by decentralized bio-inspired swarming rules.8485

Data mining and profiling

Data mining is the application of statistical techniques and programmatic algorithms to discover previously unnoticed relationships within the data. Data profiling in this context is the process of assembling information about a particular individual or group in order to generate a profile that is, a picture of their patterns and behavior. Data profiling can be an extremely powerful tool for psychological and social network analysis. A skilled analyst can discover facts about a person that they might not even be consciously aware of themselves.86

Economic (such as credit card purchases) and social (such as telephone calls and emails) transactions in modern society create large amounts of stored data and records. In the past, this data was documented in paper records, leaving a “paper trail“, or was simply not documented at all. Correlation of paper-based records was a laborious process it required human intelligence operators to manually dig through documents, which was time-consuming and incomplete, at best.

But today many of these records are electronic, resulting in an “electronic trail”. Every use of a bank machine, payment by credit card, use of a phone card, call from home, checked out library book, rented video, or otherwise complete recorded transaction generates an electronic record. Public records such as birth, court, tax and other records are increasily being digitized and made available online. In addition, due to laws like CALEA, web traffic and online purchases are also available for profiling. Electronic record-keeping makes data easily collectable, storable, and accessible so that high-volume, efficient aggregation and analysis is possible at significantly lower costs.

Information relating to many of these individual transactions is often easily available because it is generally not guarded in isolation, since the information, such as the title of a movie a person has rented, might not seem sensitive. However, when many such transactions are aggregated they can be used to assemble a detailed profile revealing the actions, habits, beliefs, locations frequented, social connections, and preferences of the individual. This profile is then used, by programs such as ADVISE 87 and TALON, to determine whether the person is a military, criminal, or political threat. In addition to its own aggregation and profiling tools, the government is able to access information from third parties for example, banks, credit companies or employers, etc. by requesting access informally, by compelling access through the use of subpoenas or other procedures,88 or by purchasing data from commercial data aggregators or data brokers. The United States has spent $370 million on its 43 planned fusion centers, which are national network of surveillance centers that are located in over 30 states. The centers will collect and analyze vast amounts of data on U.S.

citizens. It will get this data by consolidating personal information from sources such as state driver’s licensing agencies, hospital records, criminal records, school records, credit bureaus, banks, etc. — and placing this information in a centralized database that can be accessed from all of the centers, as well as other federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies.89

Under United States v. Miller (1976), data held by third parties is generally not subject to Fourth Amendment warrant requirements.


Corporate surveillance is the monitoring of a person or group’s behavior by a corporation. The data collected is most often used for marketing purposes or sold to other corporations, but is also regularly shared with government agencies. It can be used as a form of business intelligence, which enables the corporation to better tailor their products and/or services to be desirable by their customers. Or the data can be sold to other corporations, so that they can use it for the aforementioned purpose. Or it can be used for direct marketing purposes, such as the targeted advertisements on Google and Yahoo, where ads are targeted to the user of the search engine by analyzing their search history and emails90 (if they use free webmail services), which is kept in a database.91

For instance, Google, the world’s most popular search engine, stores identifying information for each web search. An IP address and the search phrase used are stored in a database for up to 18 months.92 Google also scans the content of emails of users of its Gmail webmail service, in order to create targeted advertising based on what people are talking about in their personal email correspondences.93 Google is, by far, the largest Internet advertising agency millions of sites place Google’s advertising banners and links on their websites, in order to earn money from visitors who click on the ads. Each page containing Google advertisements adds, reads, and modifies “cookies” on each visitor’s computer.94 These cookies track the user across all of these sites, and gather information about their web surfing habits, keeping track of which sites they visit, and what they do when they are on these sites.

This information, along with the information from their email accounts, and search engine histories, is stored by Google to use for building a profile of the user to deliver better-targeted advertising.93

According to the American Management Association and the ePolicy Institute that undertake an annual quantitative survey about electronic monitoring and surveillance with approximately 300 U.S. companies, “more than one fourth of employers have fired workers for misusing e-mail and nearly one third have fired employees for misusing the Internet”.95 More than 40% of the companies monitor e-mail traffic of their workers, and 66% of corporations monitor Internet connections. In addition, most companies use software to block non-work related websites such as sexual or pornographic sites, game sites, social networking sites, entertainment sites, shopping sites, and sport sites. The American Management Association and the ePolicy Institute also stress that companies “tracking content, keystrokes, and time spent at the keyboard … store and review computer files … monitor the blogosphere to see what is being written about the company, and … monitor social networking sites”.95 Furthermore, about 30% of the companies had also fired employees for non-work related email and Internet usage such as “inappropriate or offensive language” and “viewing, downloading, or uploading inappropriate/offensive content”.9596

The United States government often gains access to these databases, either by producing a warrant for it, or by simply asking. The Department of Homeland Security has openly stated that it uses data collected from consumer credit and direct marketing agencies such as Google for augmenting the profiles of individuals whom it is monitoring.97 The FBI, Department of Homeland Security, and other intelligence agencies have formed an “information-sharing” partnership with over 34,000 corporations as part of their Infragard program.

The U.S. Federal government has gathered information from grocery store “discount card” programs, which track customers’ shopping patterns and store them in databases, in order to look for “terrorists” by analyzing shoppers’ buying patterns.98

Human operatives

Organizations that have enemies who wish to gather information about the groups’ members or activities face the issue of infiltration.99100

In addition to operatives’ infiltrating an organization, the surveilling party may exert pressure on certain members of the target organization to act as informants (i.e., to disclose the information they hold on the organization and its members).101102

Fielding operatives is very expensive, and for governments with wide-reaching electronic surveillance tools at their disposal the information recovered from operatives can often be obtained from less problematic forms of surveillance such as those mentioned above. Nevertheless, human infiltrators are still common today. For instance, in 2007 documents surfaced showing that the FBI was planning to field a total of 15,000 undercover agents and informants in response to an anti-terrorism directive sent out by George W. Bush in 2004 that ordered intelligence and law enforcement agencies to increase their HUMINT capabilities.103

Satellite imagery

Main article: Reconnaissance satellite

On May 25, 2007 the U.S. Director of National Intelligence Michael McConnell authorized the National Applications Office (NAO) of the Department of Homeland Security to allow local, state, and domestic Federal agencies to access imagery from military intelligence Reconnaissance satellites and Reconnaissance aircraft sensors which can now be used to observe the activities of U.S. citizens. The satellites and aircraft sensors will be able to penetrate cloud cover, detect chemical traces, and identify objects in buildings and “underground bunkers”, and will provide real-time video at much higher resolutions than the still-images produced by programs such as Google Earth.104105106107108109

Identification and credentials

Surveillance - Wikipedia A card containing an identification number

One of the simplest forms of identification is the carrying of credentials. Some nations have an identity card system to aid identification, whilst others are considering it but face public opposition.

Other documents, such as passports, driver’s licenses, library cards, banking or credit cards are also used to verify identity. If the form of the identity card is “machine-readable”, usually using an encoded magnetic stripe or identification number (such as a Social Security number), it corroborates the subject’s identifying data. In this case it may create an electronic trail when it is checked and scanned, which can be used in profiling, as mentioned above.

RFID and geolocation devices

Surveillance - Wikipedia Hand with planned insertion point for Verichip device

RFID tagging

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tagging is the use of very small electronic devices (called “RFID tags”) which are applied to or incorporated into a product, animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. The tags can be read from several meters away. They are extremely inexpensive, costing a few cents per piece, so they can be inserted into many types of everyday products without significantly increasing the price, and can be used to track and identify these objects for a variety of purposes.

Some companies appear to be “tagging” their workers by incorporating RFID tags in employee ID badges. Workers in U.K. considered strike action in protest of having themselves tagged; they felt that it was dehumanizing to have all of their movements tracked with RFID chips.110 Some critics have expressed fears that people will soon be tracked and scanned everywhere they go.111 On the other hand, RFID tags in newborn baby ID bracelets put on by hospitals have foiled kidnappings.110

Surveillance - Wikipedia RFID chip pulled from new credit card

Verichip is an RFID device produced by a company called Applied Digital Solutions (ADS). Verichip is slightly larger than a grain of rice, and is injected under the skin. The injection reportedly feels similar to receiving a shot. The chip is encased in glass, and stores a “VeriChip Subscriber Number” which the scanner uses to access their personal information, via the Internet, from Verichip Inc.’s database, the “Global VeriChip Subscriber Registry”. Thousands of people have already had them inserted.111 In Mexico, for example, 160 workers at the Attorney General’s office were required to have the chip injected for identity verification and access control purposes.112113

In a 2003 editorial, CNET’s chief political correspondent, Declan McCullagh, speculated that, soon, every object that is purchased, and perhaps ID cards, will have RFID devices in them, which would respond with information about people as they walk past scanners (what type of phone they have, what type of shoes they have on, which books they are carrying, what credit cards or membership cards they have, etc.). This information could be used for identification, tracking, or targeted marketing. As of 2012, this has largely not come to pass.114

Global Positioning System

Surveillance - Wikipedia Diagram of GPS satellites orbiting Earth See also: GPS tracking

In the U.S., police have planted hidden GPS tracking devices in people’s vehicles to monitor their movements, without a warrant.

In early 2009, they were arguing in court that they have the right to do this.115

Several cities are running pilot projects to require parolees to wear GPS devices to track their movements when they get out of prison.116

Mobile phones

Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect geolocation data. The geographical location of a mobile phone (and thus the person carrying it) can be determined easily (whether it is being used or not), using a technique known multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone.2930 Dr. Victor Kappeler117 of Eastern Kentucky University indicates that police surveillance is a strong concern, stating the following statistics from 2013:

Of the 321,545 law enforcement requests made to Verizon, 54,200 of these requests were for “content” or “location” information not just cell phone numbers or IP addresses. Content information included the actual text of messages, emails and the wiretapping of voice or messaging content in real-time. A comparatively new off-the-shelf surveillance device is an IMSI-catcher, an telephone eavesdropping device used to intercept mobile phone traffic and track the movement of mobile phone users. Essentially a “fake” mobile tower acting between the target mobile phone and the service provider’s real towers, it is considered a man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack. IMSI-catchers are used in some countries by law enforcement and intelligence agencies, but their use has raised significant civil liberty and privacy concerns and is strictly regulated in some countries.118

Human Microchips

Main article: Microchip implant (human)

A human microchip implant is an identifying integrated circuit device or RFID transponder encased in silicate glass and implanted in the body of a human being.

A subdermal implant typically contains a unique ID number that can be linked to information contained in an external database, such as personal identification, medical history, medications, allergies, and contact information. Several types of microchips have been developed in order to control and monitor certain types of people, such as criminals, political figures and spies, a “killer” tracking chip patent was filed at the German Patent and Trademark Office(DPMA) around May 2009.


See also: United States v. Spy Factory, Inc.

Covert listening devices and video devices, or “bugs”, are hidden electronic devices which are used to capture, record, and/or transmit data to a receiving party such as a law enforcement agency. The U.S.

has run numerous domestic intelligence operations, such as COINTELPRO, which have bugged the homes, offices, and vehicles of thousands of U.S. citizens, usually political activists, subversives, and criminals.119

Law enforcement and intelligence services in the U.K. and the United States possess technology to remotely activate the microphones in cell phones, by accessing the phone’s diagnostic/maintenance features, in order to listen to conversations that take place nearby the person who holds the phone.242526

Postal services

As more people use faxes and e-mail the significance of surveilling the postal system is decreasing, in favor of Internet and telephone surveillance. But interception of post is still an available option for law enforcement and intelligence agencies, in certain circumstances. This is not a common practice, however, and entities like the US Army require high levels of approval to conduct.120

The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and Federal Bureau of Investigation have performed twelve separate mail-opening campaigns targeted towards U.S. citizens. In one of these programs, more than 215,000 communications were intercepted, opened, and photographed.121122


“Stakeout” redirects here. For other uses, see Stakeout (disambiguation).

A stakeout is the coordinated surveillance of a location or person. Stakeouts are generally performed covertly and for the purpose of gathering evidence related to criminal activity.

The term derives from the practice by land surveyors of using survey stakes to measure out an area before the main building project is commenced.


Surveillance - Wikipedia Graffiti expressing concern about proliferation of video surveillance


Supporters of surveillance systems believe that these tools can help protect society from terrorists and criminals. They argue that surveillance can reduce crime by three means: by deterrence, by observation, and by reconstruction. Surveillance can deter by increasing the chance of being caught, and by revealing the modus operandi. This requires a minimal level of invasiveness.123

Another method on how surveillance can be used to fight criminal activity is by linking the information stream obtained from them to a recognition system (for instance, a camera system that has its feed run trough a facial recognition system). This can for instance auto-recognize fugitives and direct police to their location. A distinction here has to be made however on the type of surveillance employed. Some people that say support video surveillance in city streets may not support indiscriminate telephone taps and vice versa.

Besides the types, the way in how this surveillance is done also matters a lot; i.e. indiscriminate telephone taps are supported by much fewer people than say telephone taps only done to people suspected of engaging in illegal activities. Surveillance can also be used to give human operatives a tactical advantage through improved situational awareness, or through the use of automated processes, i.e. video analytics. Surveillance can help reconstruct an incident and prove guilt through the availability of footage for forensics experts. Surveillance can also influence subjective security if surveillance resources are visible or if the consequences of surveillance can be felt.

Some of the surveillance systems (such as the camera system that has its feed run through a facial recognition system mentioned above) can also have other uses besides countering criminal activity. For instance, it can help on retrieving runaway children, abducted or missing adults, mentally disabled people, … Other supporters simply believe that there is nothing that can be done about the loss of privacy, and that people must become accustomed to having no privacy. As Sun Microsystems CEO Scott McNealy said: “You have zero privacy anyway. Get over it.”124125

Another common argument is: “If you aren’t doing something wrong then you don’t have anything to fear.” Which follows that if one is engaging in unlawful activities, in which case they do not have a legitimate justification for their privacy. However, if they are following the law the surveillance would not affect them.126


Surveillance - Wikipedia An elaborate graffito in Columbus, Ohio, depicting state surveillance of telecommunications

With the advent of programs such as the Total Information Awareness program and ADVISE, technologies such as high speed surveillance computers and biometrics software, and laws such as the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, governments now possess an unprecedented ability to monitor the activities of their subjects.127 Many civil rights and privacy groups, such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation and American Civil Liberties Union, have expressed concern that by allowing continual increases in government surveillance of citizens we will end up in a mass surveillance society, with extremely limited, or non-existent political and/or personal freedoms. Fears such as this have led to numerous lawsuits such as Hepting v. AT&T.127128

Some critics state that the claim made by supporters should be modified to read: “As long as we do what we’re told, we have nothing to fear.”. For instance, a person who is part of a political group which opposes the policies of the national government, might not want the government to know their names and what they have been reading, so that the government cannot easily subvert their organization, arrest, or kill them.

Other critics state that while a person might not have anything to hide right now, the government might later implement policies that they do wish to oppose, and that opposition might then be impossible due to mass surveillance enabling the government to identify and remove political threats. Further, other critics point to the fact that most people do have things to hide. For example, if a person is looking for a new job, they might not want their current employer to know this. Also if an employer wishes total privacy to watch over their own employee and secure their financial information it may become impossible, and they may not wish to hire those under surveillance. The most concern of detriment is securing the lives of those who live under total surveillance willingly, educating the public to those under peaceful watch while identifying terrorist and those who use the same surveillance systems and mechanisms in opposition to peace, against civilians, and to disclose lives removed from the laws of the land. In addition, a significant risk of private data collection stems from the fact that this risk is too much unknown to be readily assessed today. Storage is cheap enough to have data stored forever, and the models using which it will be analyzed in a decade from now cannot reasonably be foreseen.129


Surveillance - Wikipedia A traffic camera atop a high pole oversees a road in the Canadian city of Toronto.

Programs such as the Total Information Awareness program, and laws such as the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act have led many groups to fear that society is moving towards a state of mass surveillance with severely limited personal, social, political freedoms, where dissenting individuals or groups will be strategically removed in COINTELPRO-like purges.127128

Kate Martin, of the Center For National Security Studies said of the use of military spy satellites being used to monitor the activities of U.S.

citizens: “They are laying the bricks one at a time for a police state.”108

Some point to the blurring of lines between public and private places, and the privatization of places traditionally seen as public (such as shopping malls and industrial parks) as illustrating the increasing legality of collecting personal information.130 Traveling through many public places such as government offices is hardly optional for most people, yet consumers have little choice but to submit to companies’ surveillance practices.131 Surveillance techniques are not created equal; among the many biometric identification technologies, for instance, face recognition requires the least cooperation. Unlike automatic fingerprint reading, which requires an individual to press a finger against a machine, this technique is subtle and requires little to no consent.131

Psychological/social effects

Some critics, such as Michel Foucault, believe that in addition to its obvious function of identifying and capturing individuals who are committing undesirable acts, surveillance also functions to create in everyone a feeling of always being watched, so that they become self-policing. This allows the State to control the populace without having to resort to physical force, which is expensive and otherwise problematic.132

The concept of panopticism is a means of indirect control over a large populous through the uncertainty of surveillance. Michel Foucault analyzed the architecture of the prison panopticon, and realized that its success was not just in its ability to monitor but also its ability to not monitor without anyone knowing.133 Critics such as Derrick Jensen and George Draffan, argue that panopticism in the United States began in World War I when the issuing of passports became important for the tracking of citizens and possibly enemies of the state. Such surveillance continues today through government agencies in the form of tracking internet usage and library usage.134

Psychologists have shown that merely giving people the “illusion” of being observed can produce significant voluntary changes in a range of pro-social behaviors.135 For example, studies have shown that people donate more, litter less, and are more likely to come out to vote in local elections when they think that they are being watched.136


Numerous civil rights groups and privacy groups oppose surveillance as a violation of people’s right to privacy. Such groups include: Electronic Privacy Information Center, Electronic Frontier Foundation, American Civil Liberties Union

There have been several lawsuits such as Hepting v. AT&T and EPIC v. Department of Justice by groups or individuals, opposing certain surveillance activities.

Legislative proceedings such as those that took place during the Church Committee, which investigated domestic intelligence programs such as COINTELPRO, have also weighed the pros and cons of surveillance.

Counter-surveillance, inverse surveillance, sousveillance

Countersurveillance is the practice of avoiding surveillance or making surveillance difficult. Developments in the late twentieth century have caused counter surveillance to dramatically grow in both scope and complexity, such as the Internet, increasing prevalence of electronic security systems, high-altitude (and possibly armed) UAVs, and large corporate and government computer databases.137

Inverse surveillance is the practice of the reversal of surveillance on other individuals or groups (e.g., citizens photographing police). Well-known examples are George Holliday‘s recording of the Rodney King beating and the organization Copwatch, which attempts to monitor police officers to prevent police brutality. Counter-surveillance can be also used in applications to prevent corporate spying, or to track other criminals by certain criminal entities. It can also be used to deter stalking methods used by various entities and organizations.

Sousveillance is inverse surveillance, involving the recording by private individuals, rather than government or corporate entities.138

Dark Sousveillance

In Simone Browne s text, Dark Matters, she is concerned with the relationship between blackness and surveillance, and how an understanding of the ontological conditions of blackness is integral to developing a general theory of surveillance and, in particular, racializing surveillance when enactments of surveillance reify boundaries along racial lines, thereby reifying race, and where the outcome of this is often discriminatory and violent treatment .139 Browne cites Davis Lyon saying, resistance may not be liberatory indeed, it invites further control (40-41). Further, Browne situates dark sousveillance as an imaginative place from which to mobilize a critique of racializing surveillance Dark sousveillance is a site of critique, as it speaks to black epistemologies of contending with antiblack surveillance, where the tools of social control in plantation surveillance, or lantern laws in city spaces and beyond were appropriated, co-opted, repurposed, and challenged in order to facilitate survival and escape (21).

Popular culture

In literature

  • George Orwell‘s novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four, portrays a fictional totalitarian surveillance society with a very simple (by today’s standards) mass surveillance system consisting of human operatives, informants, and two-way “telescreens” in people’s homes. Because of the impact of this book, mass-surveillance technologies are commonly called “Orwellian” when they are considered problematic.
  • The novel – mistrust highlights the negative effects from the overuse of surveillance at Reflection House. The central character Kerryn installs secret cameras to monitor her housemates – see also Paranoia
  • The book The Handmaid’s Tale, as well as a film based on it, portray a totalitarian Christian theocracy where all citizens are kept under constant surveillance.
  • In the book The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, Lisbeth Salander uses computers to dig out information on people, as well as other common surveillance methods, as a freelancer.

In music


Main article: List of films featuring surveillance

See also

United States government


  1. ^ Furthermore, the figure of 500,000 for Greater London is often confused with the figure for the local government and police operated cameras in the City of London, which was about 650 in 2011.38


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Further reading

  • Allmer, Thomas (2012). “Towards a Critical Theory of Surveillance in Informational Capitalism”. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-631-63220-8
  • Feldman, Jay. (2011). Manufacturing Hysteria: A History of Scapegoating, Surveillance, and Secrecy in Modern America. New York, NY: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-375-42534-9
  • Fuchs, Christian, Kees Boersma, Anders Albrechtslund, and Marisol Sandoval, eds. (2012). “Internet and Surveillance: The Challenges of Web 2.0 and Social Media”. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-89160-8
  • Garfinkel, Simson, Database Nation; The Death of Privacy in the 21st Century. O’Reilly & Associates, Inc. ISBN 0-596-00105-3
  • Gilliom, John Overseers of the Poor: Surveillance, Resistance, and the Limits of Privacy, University Of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-29361-5
  • Haque, Akhlaque. (2015). Surveillance, Transparency and Democracy: Public Administration in the Information Age.

    University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, AL. ISBN 978-0-8173-1877-2

  • Harris, Shane. (2011). The Watchers: The Rise of America’s Surveillance State. London, UK: Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-311890-0
  • Hier, Sean P., & Greenberg, Joshua (Eds.). (2009). Surveillance: Power, Problems, and Politics. Vancouver, CA: UBC Press. ISBN 0-7748-1611-2
  • Jenkins, Peter Advanced Surveillance Training Manual, Intel Publishing, UK ISBN 0-9535378-1-1
  • Jenkins, Peter Surveillance Tradecraft, Intel Publishing, UK ISBN 978-0-9535378-2-2
  • Jensen, Derrick and Draffan, George (2004) Welcome to the Machine: Science, Surveillance, and the Culture of Control Chelsea Green Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-931498-52-4
  • Laidler, Keith. (2008). Surveillance Unlimited: How We’ve Become the Most Watched People on Earth. Cambridge, AU: Icon Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84046-877-9
  • Lyon, David (2001). Surveillance Society: Monitoring in Everyday Life. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 978-0-335-20546-2
  • Lyon, David (Ed.). (2006). Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84392-191-2
  • Lyon, David (2007) Surveillance Studies: An Overview. Cambridge: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-3591-0
  • Matteralt, Armand. (2010). The Globalization of Surveillance. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. ISBN 0-7456-4511-9
  • Parenti, Christian The Soft Cage: Surveillance in America From Slavery to the War on Terror, Basic Books, ISBN 978-0-465-05485-5
  • Petersen, J.K. (2012) Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition, Taylor & Francis: CRC Press, 1020 pp., ISBN 978-1-439873-15-1
  • Petersen, J.K. (2012) Introduction to Surveillance Studies, Taylor & Francis: CRC Press, 416 pp., ISBN 978-1-466555-09-9
  • Staples, William G. (2000). Everyday Surveillance: Vigilance and Visibility in Post-Modern Life. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 0-7425-0077-2

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Australian surveillance 'out of control': 20% increase in 1 year RT

Access to private data has increased by 20 per cent by Australia s law enforcement and government agencies and with no warrant. Australians are 26 times more prone to be placed under surveillance than people in other countries, local media report.

In such a way, state structures accessed private information over 300,000 times last year or 5,800 times every week, figures from the federal Attorney General s Department showcase. The data includes phone and internet account information, the details of out and inbound calls, telephone and internet access location data, as well as everything related to the Internet Protocol (IP) addresses visited, the Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) reports.

Australian media report that every government agency and organization use the gathered telecommunications data, and those include the Australian Crime Commission, the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, the Australian Tax Office, Medicare and Australia Post. New South Wales (NSW) Police became the biggest users of the private data, with 103,824 access authorizations during the last year a third of all information accessed by the security forces. The news triggered massive public outrage, with Australian Greens Senator Scott Ludlam telling SMH, This is the personal data of hundreds of thousands, indeed millions of Australians, and it seems that just about anyone in government can get it.

He said the move demonstrated the current data access regime was out of control and amounted to the framework for a surveillance state . The reports come as the federal government proposes even wider surveillance powers, including a minimum two-year standard for telephone and web providers a measure causing public controversy. The president for the local NSW Council for Civil Liberties, Cameron Murphy, told the Australian Financial Review that, according to the statistics, recent proposals to step up police surveillance powers and keep internet and phone data for two years or more was little more than a fishing expedition .

It s stunning and completely outrageous that so much interception is going on, Murphy said. What seems to be happening now is this is being done as a matter of first course and not as a matter of last resort. The statistics gathered by the council demonstrate that Australians are 26 times more likely to be placed under surveillance than in comparable countries. However, a spokesperson for Attorney-General Nicola Roxon indicated that these new statistics show telephone interception and surveillance powers are playing an even greater role for police so they can successfully pursue kidnappers, murderers and organized criminals.

Ludlam, on the other hand, detailed what the expansion should be accompanied by.

It s incumbent on the parliament s national security inquiry to recommend some form of warrant authorization be introduced, and that there be a review and reduction of the government agencies that can access the personal communications data of millions of Australians, he said.

BlackBerry 10 Security Certified For U.S.

Government Use Ahead Of …

BlackBerry users may not be able to download the latest Angry Birds incarnation1, but at least they can look forward to being able to use forthcoming BlackBerry 102 devices in government agencies and regulated industries in the U.S.

and Canada.

RIM has announced its as yet unreleased next gen OS, BB10, has been granted FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standard) 140-2 certification noting it s the first time Blackberry products have been FIPS certified ahead of launch.

The BlackBerry maker is battling to hold onto a dwindling customer base as it transitions to its new platform. Initially BB10 was slated to arrive this year but its launch has been put back to the first quarter of 2013. This delay has not helped RIM stem the flood of users to alternative platforms.

The latest stats from IDC3 put RIM s worldwide smartphone marketshare at just 4.3 percent in Q3, down from 9.5 percent in the same quarter last year and a whole galaxy (far far away) from Google s Android OS, which took a 75 percent global share in Q3 2012.

Apple s iOS was in second place with 14.9 percent still streaks ahead of RIM.

By lining up FIPS security certification now the BlackBerry-maker will be hoping to persuade a slice of its traditional enterprise user base, such as government agencies and business users in security-conscious industries, to hold out for BB10 rather than switching to rivals.

The FIPS standard certifies products for use by U.S.

government agencies and regulated industries that collect, store, transfer, share and disseminate sensitive information, according to RIM.

Achieving FIPS 140-2 certification means that BlackBerry 104 is ready to meet the strict security requirements of government agencies and enterprises at launch, noted Michael K. Brown, Vice President, Security Product Management and Research at RIM, in a statement. What differentiates BlackBerry is that it integrates end-to-end security, and includes certified encryption algorithms for data at rest and data in transit.

No other mobile solution has achieved the level of security accreditation that the BlackBerry solution has.

RIM s release follows below

Research In Motion (RIM) (NASDAQ: RIMM, TSX: RIM) today announced that the BlackBerry 10 platform is now FIPS 140-2 certified.

The certification will enable government agencies to deploy BlackBerry 10 smartphones and BlackBerry Enterprise Service 10, RIM s new mobile enterprise management solution, from the day of launch.

This is the first time BlackBerry products have been FIPS certified ahead of launch.

FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standard) certification provides confidence to security-conscious organizations, including U.S.

and Canadian government agencies, companies in regulated industries and other organizations dealing with sensitive information, that data stored on smartphones running BlackBerry 10 can be properly secured and encrypted.

Achieving FIPS 140-2 certification means that BlackBerry 105 is ready to meet the strict security requirements of government agencies and enterprises at launch, said Michael K. Brown, Vice President, Security Product Management and Research at RIM. What differentiates BlackBerry is that it integrates end-to-end security, and includes certified encryption algorithms for data at rest and data in transit.

No other mobile solution has achieved the level of security accreditation that the BlackBerry solution has.

FIPS 140 is issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to coordinate the requirements and standards for certifying cryptographic modules. The standard was developed through the Cryptographic Module Validation Program (CMVP), which certifies products for use by U.S. government agencies and regulated industries that collect, store, transfer, share and disseminate sensitive information.

Product certifications under the CMVP are performed in accordance with the requirements of FIPS 140-2.

It is supported by the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) for the Canadian government.

IDC expects the mobile enterprise security market to experience a high rate of growth from 2012 to 2016, said Stacy Crook, Program Manager for Mobile Enterprise research at IDC.

Maintaining the BlackBerry solution s reputation for security while introducing an enhanced user experience gives BlackBerry 10 the opportunity to be a highly competitive platform in the government, enterprise and consumer sectors.

BlackBerry products and solutions are protected by best-in-class AES 256-bit encryption, a highly secure, internationally recognized data protection standard. In addition to FIPS certifications, BlackBerry products have continuously passed rigorous security assessments from a variety of other independent organizations around the world. The BlackBerry Enterprise Solution is the first mobile platform to achieve Common Criteria Certification, a standard recognized by 26 countries, as well as the first to receive approval through the CESG Assisted Product Scheme (CAPS), the National Technical Authority for Information Assurance in the United Kingdom.

BlackBerry 7 smartphones meet Common Criteria security assurance level EAL 4+.

The BlackBerry PlayBook is the first FIPS certified tablet for deployment within U.S.

federal government agencies and certified for use by the Defence Signals Directorate of the Australian Government.

Achieving FIPS certification for an entirely new platform in a very short period of time, and before launch, is quite remarkable and a testament to the dedication of our security team, said David MacFarlane, Director, Security Certifications at RIM.

BlackBerry 10 will deliver security, a superior user experience, the ability to separately manage corporate and personal data on the same device, and ease of manageability for IT managers in an enterprise or government environment.

For more information about security and the BlackBerry platform visit


  1. ^ latest Angry Birds incarnation (
  2. ^ BlackBerry 10 (
  3. ^ stats from IDC (
  4. ^ BlackBerry 10 (
  5. ^ BlackBerry 10 (
  6. ^ (

Security guard doubles up as paramedic at Delhi hospital

New Delhi, Nov 2

Here’s a new twist to multi-tasking! A security guard at a Delhi government1-run hospital doubles up as a paramedic – jabbing patients with a syringe to collect blood.

At the Delhi-government-run Satyawati Raja Harish Chandra Hospital in west Delhi’s Narela area, Puneet Gaur, 26, guards the main gate from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. every day. In between, he is summoned to help out with collecting blood.

Gaur expertly ties a rubber band around the arm of the patient, searches for a vein, daubs the spot with a spirit-soaked piece of cotton, and lets the syringe needle in to draw out blood. He then squirts the collected blood into small labelled glass vials for testing – just like an expert.

Enquiries revealed that Gaur does not have the required lab technician’s diploma to perform the job, though he claims to have a B.Sc degree.

Earlier this year, untrained employees of a government hospital were caught on camera carrying out post-mortem in a Meerut district hospital in Uttar Pradesh. Prior to this, sweepers were found stitching up wounds in a hospital in Bulandshahr, also in Uttar Pradesh.

In the case of Gaur, he appears to have become an expert at drawing blood.

Queried about using the services of a guard to draw and collect blood, hospital medical superintendent Chandrakant told IANS: “The hospital is facing a huge staff crunch, and we are left with no alternative but to take his help for blood collection.”

The 200-bed hospital has also been facing a shortage of doctors for a very long time, Chandrakant said.

Gaur is employed with a private security firm that outsources its guards to the hospital. He has been working at the facility for the past three years and began to help out with collecting blood one and a half years ago. Gaur does not charge for the extra work, according to hospital staff.

“Gaur is collecting the blood of patients which is the work of a specially qualified degree or diploma holder,” a hospital staff member told IANS on condition of anonymity.

“Puneet is a graduate. And what’s wrong in taking his help,” Chandrakant countered when asked about Gaur’s lack of qualifications for the job, adding: “If we do not take his help, then there will be long queues at the hospital.”

Gaur refused to speak to an IANS correspondent on the issue, only stating “MS sahab hi batayenge (only the medical superintendent can comment).”

“We have written to the Delhi government several times about severe staff crunch in the hospital but to no avail,” another staff member told IANS on condition of anonymity.

Gaur draws a Rs.4,000 salary of a security guard.

The post of lab technician at the hospital has been lying vacant for two years, a staff member said.

“This is very unfortunate if it is happening in a hospital. The government should do something in order to fill up the vacant posts in the hospitals,” Harish Gupta, president of the Delhi Medical Association, told IANS.

“The shortage of staff in Delhi government hospitals is not new. Several big hospitals in the capital are also suffering from a huge staff crunch, in the lower as well as senior levels,” he added.

When contacted V.K. Aggarwal, Additional Director (Medical) Monitoring, Coordination and Supervision of Dispensaries of the Delhi government, said the shortage of lab technicians and lab assistants keeps on happening from time to time. “The matter is in our notice. We are looking into it,” Aggarwal told IANS.

The hospital gets 20,000-25,000 patients a year. According to the figure compiled by the Delhi government, last year, the hospital got 21,776 patients.

(Alok Singh can be contacted at [email protected])


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Macaulay Culkin – Hooked on heroin? Pass the death sentence or …

Posted on August 6, 2012 by Online Investigations Team

Recent images of Home Alone star Macaulay Caulkin looking gaunt and sickly have resulted in the National Enquirer claiming he is a drug addict hooked on hillbilly heroin . Further claims suggest his addiction is so bad he is suffering from a $6,000-a-month drug habit this week.1

As Private Investigators in Melbourne2 we are only too familiar how drugs, excessive consumption of alcohol and other addictions such as gambling can ruin relationships and families. In these circumstances, before confronting your loved one you need to ensure your suspicions are correct or expect immediate denial or even being written off by your loved one completely.

If you have concerns your loved one may be abusing drugs or alcohol, engaging the use of Online Investigations to conduct discreet surveillance can establish the extent of the addiction and provide solid evidence if the decision is made that follow up assistance or an intervention is required.

Unlike the National Enquirer, our methods of assisting with an individual suspected of abusing drugs does not involve publicly demanding a drug test. There s something to be said about discretion after all.

Online Investigations Pty Ltd are a private investigation company based in Melbourne, Australia. Experienced private investigators and detectives in Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia and Worldwide. Servicing Canberra, Sydney, Darwin, Brisbane, Adelaide, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and International.


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Jamaica Police Detain 3 in Security Guard Killings – ThePromoter.Com


Jamaican police detain 3 on suspicion of involvement in fatal stabbing of 3 security guards …

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Published By: ABC News World3 – Today

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