Public Surveillance

Library – Public Surveillance

JPH-JMIR Public Health and Surveillance

JMIR Public Health & Surveillance (JPHS, Editor-in-chief: Travis Sanchez, Emory University/Rollins School of Public Health) is a PubMed-indexed, peer-reviewed sister journal of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR), the top cited journal in health informatics (Impact Factor 2016: 5.1751). JPH is a multidisciplinary journal with a unique focus on the intersection of innovation and technology in public health, and includes topics like health communication, public health informatics, surveillance, participatory epidemiology, infodemiology and infoveillance, digital disease detection, digital public health interventions, mass media/social media campaigns, and emerging population health analysis systems and tools. We publish regular articles, reviews, protocols/system descriptions and viewpoint papers on all aspects of public health, with a focus on innovation and technology in public health. Apart from publishing traditional public health research and viewpoint papers as well as reports from traditional surveillance systems, JPH was one of the first (if not the only) peer-reviewed journal which publishes papers with surveillance or pharmacovigilance data from non-traditional, unstructured big data and text sources such as social media and the Internet (infoveillance2, digital disease detection), or reports on novel participatory epidemiology projects, where observations are solicited from the public.

Among other innovations, JPH is also dedicated to support rapid open data sharing and rapid open access to surveillance and outbreak data. As one of the novel features we plan to publish rapid or even real-time surveillance reports and open data. The methods and description of the surveillance system may be peer-reviewed and published only once in detail, in a “baseline report” (in a JMIR Res Protoc or a JMIR Public Health & Surveill paper), and authors then have the possibility to publish data and reports in frequent intervals rapidly and with only minimal additional peer-review (we call this article type “Rapid Surveillance Reports”). JMIR Publications may even work with authors/researchers and developers of selected surveillance systems on APIs for semi-automated reports (e.g. weekly reports to be automatically published in JPHS and indexed in PubMed, based on data-feeds from surveillance systems and minmal narratives and abstracts). Furthermore, duing epidemics and public health emergencies, submissions with critical data will be processed with expedited peer-review to enable publication within days or even in real-time.

We also publish descriptions of open data resources and open source software.

Where possible, we can and want to publish or even host the actual software or dataset on the journal website.


  1. ^ Impact Factor 2016: 5.175 (
  2. ^ infoveillance (

What is surveillance?

Surveillance is the continuous gathering of health data needed to monitor the population’s health status in order to provide or revise needed services. Note the words “dissemination…to those who need to know” in both definitions. This means that collection of health data without sharing and using those data is NOT surveillance.

A little story:

When one of us asked the Ministry of Health staff if they had good communicable disease surveillance data, they proudly took him to a large closet, opened the door, and showed him stacks from floor to ceiling of yellow, moulding surveillance forms which had been completed and submitted to the Ministry over the past years. He asked if anyone had ever looked at these forms, and they acted very surprised at such a bizarre idea.

In sum, surveillance is data for action. If you don’t plan to take any action, don’t waste your time doing surveillance. If you need to take action, but need data to do so, consider surveillance as one of the data collection methods available.


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Why Do We Need Surveillance Cameras in Public Places …

With the ever-advancing technology field come conflicting opinions about what should and should not be used. One of the pieces of technology that causes a bit of controversy is surveillance cameras that are placed in public. Although some believe that they should not be used, they can be an important part of society and can be quite helpful.

Why Do We Need Surveillance Cameras In Public Places ...

Surveillance cameras are for safety. credit: Ingram Publishing/Ingram Publishing/Getty Images

Public Safety

Surveillance cameras can be used to keep an eye out for any crimes that are in progress or that can be stopped before they even start. If a suspicious person or item is in the area, the proper authorities can be informed before any crime can be committed or damage can be done. In addition, the area can be cleared of any people as a precautionary measure.

Can Help Catch a Criminal

If a crime is committed and there is a surveillance camera, there is a good chance that the authorities will be able to get a viable image of the criminal. The camera footage can be used to put the image on posters and aired on television where someone might be able to recognize who the person is. Without the surveillance camera, it may be more difficult to get a detailed description of the perpetrator.

Sense of Security

For some people, knowing that surveillance cameras are in certain areas can help create a sense of security. No one wants to fear having to go into an area or feel as though she is not safe. Some may believe that there may be less of a chance that a crime will be committed if there are cameras in the area watching over them.

Crime Prevention

Some businesses and authorities may place cameras in areas in hope that it will prevent crimes from being committed in the first place. If a person knows that there is a surveillance camera in a specific area, he may be less willing to commit a crime at that location for fear of being caught. Some cities are even putting, or have already put, surveillance cameras on stoplights in hopes that it will prevent people from speeding or committing other traffic offenses.


In court, the footage from the surveillance camera that captured a crime can be used as evidence against the accused. Without the footage, there may be little to no evidence to go on and the criminal could go free.

In some cases, the footage may also help prove the innocence of someone who was accused of a crime, but did not commit it.

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Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Programme

The Engineering Services Division accepts no liability for any losses or damage that may arise from relying on information accessible from this website

Ministry of Health Malaysia makes every possible effort to ensure that the information published on its website is accurate and up to date, but reserves the right to make amendments at any time and without prior notice.

Public space surveillance (CCTV) in Hackney Hackney

Public space surveillance (PSS) cameras:

  • dissuade crime and anti-social behaviour
  • provide evidence to help prosecute offenders
  • help the emergency services

There are over 320 closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras in the borough, images from which are continuously monitored by fully trained, police vetted staff. Our control room has a police radio and the local police have access to images from the cameras so we can quickly notify them if there’s an incident. We keep recordings for 28 days before deleting them. Our staff have been awarded the surveillance camera code compliance certification, indicating that we comply with both best practice and the code, and use our CCTV systems transparently, effectively and proportionately.


As a result of Council and police joint operations, 1361 incidents were logged in April, of which 354 were initiated by our PSS operators. In the last year we received one complaint about PSS cameras, and 5 letters of thanks were received from partners and the public.


Public space surveillance cameras are located in these areas:

  • Brownswood
  • Cazenove
  • Chatham
  • Clissold
  • Dalston
  • De Beauvoir
  • Hackney Central
  • Hackney Downs
  • Haggerston
  • Hoxton
  • Kings Park
  • Leabridge
  • Lordship
  • New River
  • Queensbridge
  • Stoke Newington Central
  • Springfield
  • Victoria
  • Wick


Some people regard surveillance cameras as an infringement of personal liberty. We believe that everyone has the right to respect for their private and family life. Our public space surveillance cameras are carefully positioned to respect people’s privacy, and they don’t overlook any areas where you would expect privacy.

Obtaining camera images to assist with civil claims

We can provide recordings from PSS cameras for civil claims between individuals or companies. The most common requests are due to traffic collisions. If you need to request video images, the request should come from your insurance company or solicitor to provide assurance that the images are being used for lawful purposes, We have a legal duty to ensure images are not disclosed unlawfully under the Data Protection Act 1998 and the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012. Requests should be made to

We’ll respond telling applicants if there are cameras that may have caught the incident. This service is free. We can also advise members of the public if there are any cameras in the area, but we will not release any footage to them. We will only release footage to their insurance company or solicitor.

If there are cameras that might have caught the incident

We’ll invite your solicitor or insurer to make an application and send a cheque for 33, so we can search for footage.

If there’s footage

We’ll invite your solicitor or insurer to send a cheque for 132, so we can produce the footage with a statement and send it to them.

Why we charge

The public surveillance camera system is installed to deal with crime and disorder and the staff searching for the images for you would normally be searching for criminal activity. If you believe there’s a compelling reason why we should not charge for this service in your case please email

Effectiveness of Public Area Surveillance for Crime Prevention

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Lessons for Public Health …


1 GAO United States General Accounting Office Report to Congressional Requesters September 2000 WEST NILE VIRUS OUTBREAK Lessons for Public Health Preparedness GAO/HEHS

Dental Public Health

Jul 26, 2015


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Dental Public Health Dental Public Health Introduction Topics Historical Development Dental Care Delivery in the United States around the world Financing Dental Care Legislative Initiatives Education and Promotion Target Populations Lesson Plan Program Planning Program Evaluation Oral Epidemiology Research Methods Biostatistics Evaluation of Literature and Products Careers in the Government Entreprenurial Initiatives Board Review The Prevention Movement Dental Hygiene s Relation to Dental Public Health Historical Development Dental Hygiene as Forerunner to the Prevention Movement Dr. Alfred Fones Founder of Dental Hygiene School and First Author of Dental Hygiene College Textbook Historical Development Continued Practice Settings Schools Industry Military Hospitals Professional Organizations Preventive Modalities Dental Hygiene Treatment Fluoridation Xylitol Dental Sealants Oral Cancer Exams and Tobacco Cessation Nutritional Counseling Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) Mass Education/Media Dental Care Delivery In the United States Dental Care Delivery Vehicles of Dental Care in the United States FEDERAL Departments of the Federal Government NONGOVERNMENT Private Practice Institutions, Schools Insurance-Based Models STATE Departments of State State Prisons Community Clinics, Schools Dental Public Health The oral health care and education, with an emphasis on the utilization of dental hygiene sciences, delivered to a target population Factors Affecting Dental Health Access to Care ‘ Restriction of dental hygiene services ‘ Shortage of Medicaid providers ‘ Financial Situations Insurance Medicaid ‘ Transportation Factors Affecting Dental Health, Continued SES Relation to Dental Health Dental Hygiene Sciences Increase in the Geriatric Populations Malpractice Insurance Changes Federal Influence Executive Branch System Legislation Senate and House of Representatives President and Cabinet Federal Court Executive Judicial Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Operating Division Human Services Operating Division Public Health Service Operating Division National Institutes of Health Food and Drug Administration Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Indian Health Services Health Resources and Services Administration Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Human Services Operating Division Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Medicaid Medicare Administration for Children and Families Administration on Aging Public Health Service PHS works toward improving and advancing the health of our nation. U.S.

Surgeon General Dental Hygienists work as Public Health Officers. Other Federal Departments Influencing Dental Care Agriculture Defense Education Justice Labor State Treasury Veteran s Affairs United States Peace Corps (which is an executive branch agency) Individual State Influence State Dental Divisions Medicaid S-CHIPS Prisons Tribal Clinics Institutions Community Clinics Dental Health Care Personnel Need Demand Utilization Supply Dental Hygiene Shortages Dental Hygienist to Dentist Employment Ratio = 1:2 Dental Finance Public and Private Funding of Dental Care Historical Funding of Dental Care Patient s Responsibility The Advent of Dental Insurance Medicaid Coverage for Dental Services Today s Dental Financing Payment Methods Fee-for-Service Capitation Plans Encounter Fee Plans Barter System Fee-for-Service A dental practice sets a fee, and a patient and/or third party pays for the fee. UCR: usual, customary and reasonable fee Indemnity plans pay fee-for-service. Discounted coverage available and sliding scales for certain patients in certain clinics Capitation Method Dental Managed Care A certain amount is paid to a dental practice for a certain number of patients. Payment is received whether treatment is provided or not. Many times employees will state that they are not paid for cleanings provided; however, this is not an accurate statement. Encounter and Barter Encounters are for an arrangement paid for each visit. Barter system is used when the dental provider negotiates payment by exchanging goods and services. Insurance Plans Dental Service Corporations Health Service Corporations Preferred Providers Organizations Individual Practice Associations Capitation Programs Dental Billing ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ Claim Form ADA CDT Payment Plans Dental Credit Cards Explanation of Benefits Government Role Research Disease Prevention Disease Control Program Planning and Operation Funding for the Education of Dental Professionals Regulation Government s Role U.S.

PHS Federal Block Grants State Governments Local Governments Medicaid Title XIX State/Federal Program Your State s Medicaid Program Other State s Medicaid Program Dental Care Delivery Around the World International Dental Health Care Dental Diseases Historical Perspective Demographics and the Dental Hygienist Global Education of the Dental Hygienist The Role of the Dental Hygienist Access to Care in Other Countries International Dental Health Care, Continued Dental Public Health Programs and Campaigns Oral Health Policies Lobbying Groups International Dental Organizations International Overview Related Dental Professionals Regulation of Dental Hygienists Independent Practice Portability of Licensure Future of Dental Hygiene Legislative Initiatives Affecting Dental Hygiene Practice In the United States Issues in the United States Preceptorship/Alternative Education On-the-Job Training for Supragingival Scaling Restrictive Supervision Laws Affecting Access to Care Advanced Dental Hygiene Practitioner State Governments Legislative Executive Judicial Major Bodies of Law Common Law Statutory Law Constitutional Law Administrative Law Laws Pertaining to Dental Hygiene State Dental Hygiene Practice Act, sometimes referred to as the statute Supervision Status State Dental Board Administrative Law Governs Dental Hygienists and the Practice of Dental Hygiene Rules and Regulations Self-Regulation Supervision Types Unsupervised Independent Practice Collaborative Practice General Supervision Indirect Supervision Direct Supervision International Overview Related Dental Professionals Regulation of Dental Hygienists Independent Practice Portability of Licensure Future of Dental Hygiene Dental Health Education and Promotion Health Education Principles Five Dimensional Health Model Physical Mental Social Spiritual Emotional Dental Health Education Goal: to prevent dental diseases utilizing appropriate dental health interventions Health Education Principles Health Education: the education of health behaviors that bring an individual to a state of health awareness Health Promotion: the informing and motivating of people to adopt health behaviors Health Behavior: an action that helps prevent illness and promotes health for a population Goals of Dental Health Education Provide Effective Dental Health Education. Change Values Aimed at Improving Health. Healthy Behaviors Stages of Learning Unawareness Awareness Self-Interest Involvement Action Habit Transtheoretical Model Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Maintenance Action Theory of Reasoned Action Attitude toward the behavior Subjective norms Perceived behavioral control Intention Behavior Social Cognitive Theory Self-Efficacy Theory Knowledge Behavior Environment Empowerment Models Participant Oriented Social Environments Motivation Motivation is the will of the individual to act. Maslow s Heirarchy of Needs Self-Actualization Need for Self-Esteem Belongingness and Love Safety Needs Physiological Needs Behavioral Conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Modeling Lesson Plan Development Assessment Phase Assess target populations needs interests abilities Assess resources Dental Hygiene Diagnosis Formulate Findings from Assessment into a Diagnosis. Prioritize Goals. Planning Broad Goal Formulation Specific Objectives Select Teaching Methods. Implementation Be Prepared. Effective Teacher Characteristics Evaluation Qualitative Measurement Quantitative Measurement Information Provided to Appropriate Parties Target Populations For the Practicing Hygienist Target Populations A group of individuals with similarities of some sort whether it be age, race, educational background, life situations, and/or health conditions Specific Target Populations Family Caregivers Health Care Workers Hospice Workers Persons with Medical Conditions/ Diseases Developmentally Disabled Hearing Impaired Visual Impairments School Teachers Social Workers Ages Prenatal Infancy Children Adults Older Adults Cultural Diversity The social, ethnic, and cultural elements that compose a person. Barriers to Dental Hygiene and Dental Care Age Culture Education Transportation Illiteracy No providers Social Issues Language No Finances Values Attitudes Invulnerability Education Levels Habit Lack of Faith Safety Denial of Disease Convenience Provider Conflicts Misunderstanding Fear Program Planning For the Dental Hygienist What is a dental public health program?

Educational, clinical, and referral services to a target population Preventive Programs School Fluoride Mouthrinse Programs School Dental Sealant Programs Xylitol Programs Mouthguard Programs Dental Health Educational Programs Tobacco Cessation Programs Denture Identification Programs Dental Public Health Programs Healthy Smile Program Inner City Health Center Dental Program Soroptomist Dental Project Matthew 25 Operation Smile Dental Hygiene Program Planning Paradigm Assessment Population s dental needs Demographics Facility Personnel Existing Resources Funding Dental Hygiene Program Planning Paradigm, Continued Dental Hygiene Diagnosis Prioritization of needs Formulation of diagnosis to provide goals and objectives for blueprint Methods to measure goals Blueprint Address constraints and alternatives. Planning Dental Hygiene Program Planning Paradigm, Continued Implementation Program will begin operation. Revision and changes identified and employed Measuring goals Qualitative and quantitative evaluation Ongoing revisions employed Evaluation Program Evaluation Dental Public Health Program Evaluation Program Planning ‘ Objectives Measurement of Objectives Formative Summative Evaluation Techniques Traditional Nonclinical Measurements Interviews Surveys Basic BSS Dental Indexes Clinical Methods Government s Evaluation Healthy People 2010 Objectives and Evaluation Mechanisms NOHSS Call to Action Oral Epidemiology Study of Oral Diseases Multifactorial Nature of Disease Terminology Epidemic Endemic Pandemic Disease Rates Mortality Morbidity Prevalence Incidence Etiology Surveilance Risk Factors Index Oral Epidemiology Reports Morbidity and Mortality (MMWR) Healthy People Reports Surgeon General s Report Call to Action Global Oral Data Bank Epidemiology of Oral Diseases Periodontal Diseases Tooth Loss Dental Caries Oral Cancer Cleft Lip/Palate Injury Toothaches Research In Dental Hygiene Significance of Research to Dental Hygiene Dental public health is based upon programs that have demonstrated effectiveness in achieving health for the population. Types of Research Historical Descriptive Epidemiological Survey Observational Case Studies Correlational Longitudinal Cross-sectional Retroactive Experimental (Prospective) Quasi-experimental Beginning Research Research Question Does Brand X toothpaste whiten teeth? Positive Hypothesis Brand X toothpaste does significantly whiten teeth. There is no statistically significant difference between Brand X and a placebo when comparing the whitening of teeth. Null Hypothesis Research Design Formulating a hypothesis Review of the literature Methods and materials Statistical evaluation Experimental Approaches Two group pretest/post-test designs Time series Post-test only Solomon three and four group Factorial Placebos Control groups Sampling Techniques Randomization Systematic Convenience Stratifying Informed Consent Informed Consent is part of examining the ethics of the research project as a whole. Dental Research Biostatistics Categorizing Data Discrete or Continuous Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Descriptive Statistics Measures of Central Tendency Mean Median Mode Measures of Dispersion Range Variance Standard Deviation The Normal Distribution Gaussian Distribution Bell-Shaped Curve Skewed Data Graphing Data Frequency Distribution Table Grouped Frequency Table Bar Graph Histogram Polygon 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr East West North Correlation Correlation Coefficients Positive Correlation Negative Correlation Strong Correlation Correlation Pearson Product Movement Correlation Coefficient Spearman Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient Statistical Decision Making Probability Type I Error Type II Error Degrees of Freedom Inferential Statistics Parametric Inferential Statistics Student t-test Analysis of Variance Nonparametric Inferential Statistics Chi Square Test Other Nonparametric Tests Interpretation of Data Statistical Significance Clinical Significance Research Results Validity: Results of the study can be inferred to the general population. Reliability: The study was conducted in a controlled manner and if repeated would lend the same results; thus, the study is reproducible.

Evaluation of Scientific Literature and Dental Products Regulation of Dental Care Products Food and Drug Administration American Dental Association Seal of Acceptance Dental Hygienist s Role Critical consumer Patient education Awareness of advertising techniques Evaluation of Scientific Literature Introduction Purpose Research Design Sample Selection Product Usage Examiners Statistical Significance Results Careers in Dental Public Health Positions for the RDH U.S.

PHS VA Hospitals Federal Prisons Military Base Clinics Other Agencies United States RDH Positions Commissioned Officer Positions Civil Service Positions National Health Service Corps Other Options Independent Contractor Employee of Dental Staffing Agency Student Opportunities COSTEP Strategies for Creating Dental Hygiene Positions In Dental Public Health Settings Populations Homebound Institutionalized Populations with Disabilities Rural Area Residents Population with Dental Phobias Populations faced with Language or Cultural Barriers Patients without Financing Proposed Plan for Action Dental Hygiene Program Planning Paradigm Assessment Dental Hygiene Diagnosis Planning Implementation Evaluation Practice Management Issues Patient tracking Appointment scheduling Practice promotion Collection of fees Proposal Development and Presentation Introduction Significance of Position Blueprint of the Operational Program Conclusion Contracts Teaching Strategies Dental Public Health Review Community Health/Research Principles Promoting health and preventing disease within groups Participating in community programs Analyzing scientific information, utilizing statistical concepts, and applying research results Dental Public Health: Contemporary Practice for the Dental Hygienist: The Dental Hygienist is the Premier Dental Public Health Provider.


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Public Surveillance Unit

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Public Surveillance Unit or PSU is a fictional institution in the Judge Dredd comic strip in 2000 AD. It was introduced in progs (issues) 954 and 959 (1995). Notable PSU characters in the comic strip are Judge Niles, its chief, and Judge Roffman, who frequently assists Judge Dredd in surveillance, espionage and tracking criminals. Former PSU-chief Judge Edgar was also a recurring character and a rival of Dredd.


PSU is an organisation within the Justice Department of Mega-City One. It is responsible for monitoring every activity of every one of the millions of citizens who inhabit the city. The whole city is full of surveillance cameras which automatically record and log every sighting of each citizen on the PSU computers locations, dates and times, and associates. PSU also records every credit card transaction and every purchase anybody makes. They also keep fingerprints and DNA records. This information is used to build up detailed files on every individual in the city, updated throughout their lifetimes.

It is normally used for solving crimes, but can also be used to keep dissidents under control and to keep an eye on democracy activists.1

PSU has its headquarters inside the Statue of Judgement.2 It also has staff at section houses across the city.

In 2134, the terrorist group Total War destroyed the Statue of Judgement in a missile attack, wiping out most of the unit and disabling its functions. Justice Department had grown too reliant on PSU by this point: the sudden loss of it meant they were crippled in the pursuit of a Soviet plot and that criminals in every sector ran amok. A senior judge went as far as to say “we might as well pack up and hand the city over to the Sovs”.3 The remnants of PSU were merged into the new Undercover Operations Division.4

Heads of PSU


  1. ^ 2000 AD prog 959
  2. ^ 2000 AD prog 954
  3. ^ 2000 AD progs 1774-5
  4. ^ 2000 AD progs 1803

Judge Dredd Judges Mega-City One



Other characters

Fictional world






Other media Films



Radio plays

Public Surveillance Unit Retrieved from “