Door Supervision

Library Referance – Door Supervision Ariticals and referance pages relating to door and location supervisors.

Door Supervision – Security Train

Course: Level 2 Award in Door Supervision

Course Duration: 4 Days

Course Assessment: Multiple choice exams and Practical assessment.

Teaching Method: You will be taught in a classroom using a mixture of group and pair activities and practical activities such as role-plays.

Entry Requirement: There is no specific entry requirement to attend Door Supervision course. But you need to have a good level of spoken and written English.

Course Overview: Under the Private Security Industry Authority Act 2001, anyone wishes to be employed in the private security industry must undertake a recognized SIA licence training before applying for a SIA licence.

You need to have right level of training and qualification through SIA compliant course from an approved training provider in order to obtain SIA door supervisor licence. To get this qualification, four training modules are to be completed and pass three written exams and one practical assessment

Our trainers have real life experience in conflict management. We ensure that all the learning takes place in a simulating and engaging environment. Due to nature of the course, it s every aspect is covered in great detail.

The responsibilities of a Door Supervisor are very demanding so it is vital that you receive the best quality SIA Door Supervisor Training before you begin your new career.

After successfully completing your Door Supervisor course you will be able to apply for a SIA Door Supervisor Licence.

Course Content

Working in Private Security Industry (Unit 1)

  • Session 1: Awareness of the Law in the Private Security Industry
  • Session 2: Health and Safety for the Private Security Operative
  • Session 3: Fire Safety Awareness
  • Session 4: Emergency Procedures
  • Session 5: The Private Security Industry
  • Session 6: Communication Skills and Customer Care

Door Supervisor Specialist Module (Unit 2)

  • Session 1: Behavioural Standards
  • Session 2: Civil and Criminal Law
  • Session 3: Searching
  • Session 4: Arrest
  • Session 5: Drugs Awareness
  • Session 6: Recording Incidents and Crime Preservation
  • Session 7: Licensing Law
  • Session 8: Emergency Procedures

Conflict Management Module (Unit 3)

  • Session 1: Avoiding Conflict and Reducing Personal Risk
  • Session 2: Defusing Conflict
  • Session 3: Resolving and Learning from Conflict
  • Session 4: Application of Communication Skills and Conflict Management for Door Supervisors

Physical Intervention Skills Module (Unit 4)

  • Session 1: Introduction to Physical Skills
  • Session 2: Disengagement Techniques
  • Session 3: Escorting Techniques

Door Supervision – 1st Security Solutions

1st Security Solutions Ltd who holds approved Contractor status for the provision of Door Supervision is proud of our round peg round hole approach to Door Supervision. Gone are the days when doormen where referred to as bouncers. Gone is the bomber jacket the tailored suit has arrived.

Our staff are hand picked to work within your environment. We have opted for a more professional looking door supervisor, who can display:

Good customer care
Open relaxed posture
Non aggressive body language
Approachable manner
Diplomatic people skills and good customer management

Our door supervisors are trained to meet both our own standards and also the requirements of the Security Industry Authority. We believe that we are the Market leaders when it comes to investing in training in our staff.

Experience and training allows personnel to spot potential danger areas and deal with the problems before they arise.

door supervisor | eBay

Enter your search keyword

Advanced1

References

  1. ^ Advanced Search (www.ebay.co.uk)

Sovereign Door Supervision, Security Personnel Provider …

Whether you require Door supervisors, static security guards, close protection, cctv operators, car park security attendants or event stewarding you would be wise to choose Sovereign Door Supervision Ltd. We can also provide Fast Response Groups, back stage and pit crews, event control, search teams and hospitality hosts. A firm you can rely on 24/7. On time, smartly attired, professional and at the right price.

Why choose Sovereign Security Staff?

Well, our rates are extremely competitive and are significantly lower than the majority of our competitors, but the standard produced by our staff is far higher in all areas. We will keep the unwelcome, the intoxicated and the under age away from your premises. Our one aim is to ensure that your customers, visitors, and staff are safe in their working and social environment. That your property is undamaged and that the Police visit your venue for a social call and not for an incident involving public safety.

We cover Bristol, Bath, Gloucester and the surrounding areas.

Sovereign Door Supervision, Security Personnel Provider ... Sovereign Door Supervision, Security Personnel Provider ...

Bristol Security Services

For all front of house, in house and festival security.

Mature, Reliable, Punctual and Smartly Attired

SOVEREIGN DOOR SUPERVISION LTD ARE COMPLIANT WITH ALL LEGAL AND LICENSING REGULATIONS AND COMPLY WITH THE HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK ACT 1974.

Door Supervisors | Nightclub & Venue Security

Door Supervisors | Nightclub & Venue SecurityExclusec are specialist in providing high calibre, reliable and professional SIA Door Supervisors to pubs, nightclubs and licensed premises throughout Manchester and the North West.

  • Our service includes:
  • FREE initial venue assessment.
  • FREE initial & annual venue risk assessments.
  • Experienced and hands on Management Team
  • Provision of trained, experienced, vetted & SIA licensed Door Supervisors.
  • A friendly, reliable and cost effective service from a responsible and reliable company.
  • Provision of only the best, customer focused staff so your venue and customers are safe at all times.
  • A company who provides a highly professional approach to security.
  • Fully insured service with Employers and Public Liability Insurance.

Our professional team of SIA licensed Door Supervisors are known amongst our clients for their positive attitude, flexibility, reliability, high standard of personal presentation, adherence to dress code, excellent written and verbal communication skills, and extensive experience in this customer focused role. Whether you require our Door Supervisors on an ad-hoc or on going contractual basis, we have the right solution for your venue. We understand that our service often becomes an integral part of your business activity. Our services are based on listening to your needs and giving our advice to provide a positive and long lasting business relationship.

Professional SIA Door Supervisors

Exclusec are not just another security company . We do not employ bouncers or Jacket Fillers instead we are committed to providing trained, experienced and professional staff delivering exceptional customer service to all our customers. This ethos is cascaded to staff throughout all levels. Our service is provided in accordance to BS7960 for Door Supervisors and all staff are vetted to BS7858.

We ensure that all our SIA Door Supervisors are aware of and comply with the SIA Standards of Behaviour1.

Areas Covered:
Trafford, Manchester, Bury, Bolton, MediaCity UK, Oldham, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Wigan and Warrington.

In addition, we can deploy our services across the North West and UK.

References

  1. ^ Standards of Behaviour for Door Supervisors (www.exclusec.co.uk)

Door Supervision – All Events Security Limited

At All Events Security we have enjoyed 15+ years of success in the security industry. During this time we have worked closely with private and corporate companies, supplying Door Supervisors to pubs, clubs, leisure centers and other enclosed venues all around the UK.

Here at All Events Security, all of our Door Supervisors hold a full SIA licence and have received training in customer service, physical intervention, first Aid and Health and Safety. The training that our Door Supervisors obtain is paramount to ensuring that your customers feel welcomed by friendly faces and have an enjoyable experience whilst at your venue. Our Door Supervision service is focused on providing friendly, approachable and highly trained staff to ensure the safety of your customers and the security of your premises. We can provide added value to you by offering our consultancy wherever needed and tailor our services to any of your specific needs. Every member of our security team at All Events Security has the ability to think on their feet effectively and efficiently which makes them invaluable to our company. Our head Door Supervisors will have NVQ level 2 Team Leading or NVQ level 3 in Management. Other key skills we work on with our Door Supervisors are customer service, powers of observation, strong communication and the ability to defuse potentially violent situations. Every member of our team are screened and vetted to BS 7858.

All Events Security LTD holds SIA approved contractor status for the provision of door supervision BS 7960. We have a smart and identifiable uniform so our team stands out from the public and other staff within the venue. This can be customized to the way our clients would like them to appear.

Your All Events Security Door Supervisors mission once on shift at your venue will be:

Door Supervision | Door Supervisior Course

Under the Private Security Industry Authority Act 2001, all individuals wishing to work in the private security industry must undertake a recognised qualification before applying for a licence1. The HABC Level 2 Award in Door Supervision has been developed to meet the requirements of the Security Industry Authority (SIA).2 It is based on the relevant SIA Specifications for Learning and Qualifications and provides the necessary skills and knowledge for learners who wish to apply for an SIA licence and work as a Door Supervisor within the private security industry. The qualification comprises 4 mandatory units:

Unit 1 – Working in the Private Security Industry

Unit 2 – Working as a Door Supervisor

Unit 3 – Conflict Management for the Private Security Industry

Unit 4 – Physical Intervention Skills for the Private Security Industry

This qualification can enable the learner to progress onto the NVQ in Providing Security Services or undertake further learning in other areas of the private security industry such as CCTV Operations.

Assessment

Unit 1 – Working in the Private Security Industry

  • 40-question multiple-choice examination paper.
  • Successful candidates must achieve a score of at least 28 out of 40.
  • Examination duration 1 hour.
  • Guided learning hours for this unit are 10 hours.

Unit 2 – Working as a Door Supervisor

  • 45-question multiple-choice examination paper.
  • Successful candidates must achieve a score of at least 31 out of 45.
  • Examination duration 1 hour 15 minutes.
  • Guided learning hours for this unit are 12 hours.

Unit 3 – Conflict Management for the Private Security Industry

  • 20-question multiple-choice examination paper.
  • Successful candidates must achieve a score of at least 14 out of 20.
  • Examination duration 30 minutes.
  • Guided learning hours for this unit are 8 hours

Unit 4 – Physical Intervention Skills for the Private Security Industry

  • Ongoing practical assessment throughout the course by the tutor.
  • A true or false question paper marked by the course tutor.
  • Guided learning hours for this unit are 15 hours

This qualification is suitable for learners over the age of 18. It is delivered over 4 days with a large amount of pre-course reading and written tasks to complete. Full details will be sent out to you.

The course is assessed by 3 multiple choice exams, a 15 question true/false exam and practical assessment.

References

  1. ^ licence (www.sia.homeoffice.gov.uk)
  2. ^ Security Industry Authority (SIA). (www.sia.homeoffice.gov.uk)

Door supervisor

1. Entry requirements

You must be over 18 and hold an Security Industry Authority (SIA) licence to work as a door supervisor in England or Wales. You will need to pass identity and criminal record checks.

You ll also need a good level of physical fitness. The SIA has more information about training providers and working as a door supervisor. You could get into this job through an apprenticeship2.

1

References

  1. ^ Security Industry Authority (www.sia.homeoffice.gov.uk)
  2. ^ apprenticeship (www.gov.uk)

A security management guide: the role, training, certification, degrees and standards

A Security Management Guide: The Role, Training, Certification, Degrees And Standards

Security management is the term most commonly used to describe the role of heads of security and other security professionals. In this guide we explore the scope of the roles, training, qualifications and standards of a group also know within the industry as end users . A typical security control room, coordination of which is central to the security management discipline Security management: what does it involve?

The role of security management involves the identification of one s assets buildings, people, products, information and infrastructure and the development and implementation of policies, procedures and measures to safeguard these assets. Methods used to understand what controls might be appropriate to protect assets include information classification, risk assessment, risk analysis, and the rating of system vulnerabilities. In many workplaces, a security manager is tasked with ensuring physical security in a real world environment protecting not only products and merchandise but also the personal security of employees, visitors and clients or customers in the workplace. The advance of IT over the last 25 years has also created a role for security managers to ensure the protection of digital information, although the level of knowledge and skills required for this role is likely to involve the appointment of a specialist IT security manager. The security manager, perhaps in liaison with the health and safety and facilities managers, may be responsible for overseeing the work environment, ensuring employees follow safe work behaviours and ensuring compliance with relevant health and safety, security and fire safety standards and legislation. Security managers will be expected have up-to-date knowledge of their employer s key systems and technologies, such as access control, intruder detection, perimeter security and CCTV. Managers who have responsibility for the operation of a CCTV control room must ensure their video surveillance systems are used correctly and conform to the Information Commissioner s Office s Public Space Surveillance Standards. In the event of an incident, they will be expected to liaise, cooperate and coordinate with other internal departments, as well as external agencies, such as emergency services. The regulator: The Security Industry Authority In the UK, the main regulator of security practice is the Security Industry Authority (SIA), whose duties involve the mandatory licensing of individuals undertaking activities in the private security industry.

Licensing covers manned guarding (eg door supervision, personnel protection, the transit of monies and valuables, public space CCTV surveillance, etc), key management and the immobilisation of vehicles. To gain a license, security operatives will need to provide evidence of the appropriate knowledge, training and qualifications to carry out their duties. In 2014 IFSEC Global produced a report in conjunction with the SIA that provided valuable information and insights around the Regulator s licensing regime. Training and qualifications Training and qualifications are a key focus of the Security Institute, the UK s largest professional membership body for security professionals. Its vision is for the sector, as a whole, to become recognised and respected for its professionalism by government, business and the public. In November 2014, the Institute launched its Manifesto for Professional Security. As part its manifesto, it has called on education bodies to help it examine the future development of structured learning programmes to upskill the security workforce. It has also urged government and its agencies to engage in a meaningful and ongoing dialogue to ensure it develops in a way that is fully consistent with the needs of government and society. Its portfolio of accredited qualifications, which are offered through the Institute s education partner, Perpetuity Training, include the Certificate in Security Management, the Diploma in Security Management, and the Advanced Diploma in Security Management.

The certificate is designed for anyone relatively new to security, while the Diploma is aimed at those who are seeking to progress in their careers. The Diploma is formally recognised by three UK universities: Bucks New University; the University of Portsmouth; and the University of Leicester. Perpetuity Training became the first private organisation to launch its masters degree in security management when it introduced International Security and Risk Management at IFSEC 2016 (see video below). embedded content Aimed at addressing issues of shrinkage and internal theft, training organisation Skills for Security has recently introduced a two-day investigative interviewing course on carrying out internal investigations from planning interviews, handling witnesses, taking appropriate notes, and dealing with representatives, through to coming up with suitable questions, conducting an interview, and efficient and effective decision-making. Security management standards It should be noted that as a regulated industry, the barriers to entry for training organisations in security are relatively low, so organisations should take care to consider the quality of the professional qualification and learning delivered. In addition to individual qualifications and learning courses, there is also a security management standard for organisations. Published in July 2015, British Standard 16000 provides a generic security management framework, highlighting the essential principles of security management and demonstrating how security can be embedded in an organisation. It is designed to help support an organisation s viability, productivity, reputation, resilience and sustainability. It recognises the following: that security management is an important strategic capability; that effective security management is far more than simply reacting to threats and risks; and that organisations can identify opportunities and gain competitive advantage.

The standard covers guidance on: developing a security framework; carrying out a risk assessment; understanding security in the context of an organisation; implementing and monitoring a security programme; and introducing security solutions physical, technical, information, procedural and personnel. BS 16000 complements existing management standards relating to areas such as the environment, business continuity and risk, including ISO 27001, ISO 14001, ISO 22301, ISO 22313, ISO 31000 and ISO 9001. Download: The Video Surveillance Report 2016 This exclusive report covers the security needs of surveillance systems as shaped by the physical environment including: What do security professionals think about plug-and-play systems Challenges like low-light conditions or large spaces and the threats posed in various sectors Which cutting-edge features such as mobile access, PTZ smart controls or 4K resolution are most important to security professionals What are the most important factors driving upgrades and would end users consider an upgrade to HD analogue Download the full report here.

Bouncer (doorman) – Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Bouncer (doorman or door supervisor) Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia Modern bouncers standing at the door of a club in San Francisco, California Occupation Names Security guard, doorman Occupation type Employment Activity sectors Security, entertainment Description Competencies Communication skills, judgment, even-temperedness Education required Some jurisdictions require completion of training Related jobs Doorman, security guard Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer in front of a strip club in San Francisco, California

A bouncer (also known as a doorman, door supervisor or cooler) is a type of security guard, employed at venues such as bars, nightclubs, ranches or concerts to provide security, check legal age, to refuse entry for intoxication, aggressive behavior or non-compliance with statutory or establishment rules. Bouncers are often required where crowd size, clientele or alcohol consumption may make arguments or fights a possibility, or where the threat or presence of criminal gang activity is high. In the United States, civil liability and court costs related to the use of force by bouncers are “the highest preventable loss found within the bar industry”, as many United States bouncers are often taken to court and other countries have similar problems of excessive force. In many countries, federal or state governments have taken steps to professionalise the industry by requiring bouncers to have training, licensing, and a criminal records background check.

History

In the 1990s and 2000s, increased awareness of the risks of lawsuits and criminal charges have led many bars and venues to train their bouncers to use communication and conflict resolution skills rather than brute force against troublemakers. However, the earlier history of the occupation suggests that the stereotype of bouncers as rough, tough, physical enforcers has indeed been the case in many countries and cultures throughout history. Historical references also suggest that the ‘doorman’ function of guarding a place and selecting who can have entry to it (the stereotypical task of the modern bouncer) could at times be an honorific and evolve into a relatively important position.

Ancient times

The significance of the doorman as the person allowing (or barring) entry is found in a number of Mesopotamian myths (and later in Greek myths descended from them), including that of Nergal overcoming the seven doormen guarding the gates to the Underworld.12

In 1 Chronicles 26 of the Old Testament, the Levitical Temple is described as having a number of ‘gatekeepers’ amongst their duties are “protecting the temple from theft”, from “illegal entry into sacred areas” and “maintaining order”, all functions they share with the modern concept of the bouncer, though the described temple servants also serve as holy persons and administrators themselves3 (it is noted that some administrative function is still present in today’s bouncing in the higher position of the supervisor). Doormen or bouncers are usually larger persons who display great strength and size

The Romans had a position known as the ‘Ostiarius‘ (doorkeeper), initially a slave, who guarded the door, and sometimes ejected unwanted people from the house whose gate he guarded. The term later become a low-ranking clergy title.4

Plautus, in his play Bacchides (written approximately 194 184 BC), mentions a “large and powerful” doorman / bouncer as a threat to get an unwelcome visitor to leave.5

Tertullian, an early Christian author living mainly in the 1st century AD, while reporting on the casual oppression of Christians in Carthage, noted that bouncers were counted as part of a semi-legal underworld, amongst other ‘shady’ characters such as gamblers and pimps.6

Modern times

During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, US saloon-keepers and brothel madams hired bouncers to remove troublesome, violent, or dead-drunk patrons, and protect the saloon girls and prostitutes. The word “bouncer” was first popularized in a novel by Horatio Alger, Jr., called The Young Outlaw, which was first published in 1875. Alger was an immensely popular author in the 19th century, especially with young people and his books were widely quoted. In Chapter XIV, entitled “Bounced”, a boy is thrown out of a restaurant because he has no money to pay for his dinner:

“Here, Peter, you waited on this young man, didn’t you?” “Yes, sir.” “He hasn’t paid for his breakfast, and pretends he hasn’t got any money. Bounce him!” If Sam was ignorant of the meaning of the word ‘bounce,’ he was soon enlightened. The waiter seized him by the collar, before he knew what was going to happen, pushed him to the door, and then, lifting his foot by a well-directed kick, landed him across the sidewalk into the street. This proceeding was followed by derisive laughter from the other waiters who had gathered near the door, and it was echoed by two street urchins outside, who witnessed Sam’s ignominious exit from the restaurant.

Sam staggered from the force of the bouncing, and felt disgraced and humiliated to think that the waiter who had been so respectful and attentive should have inflicted upon him such an indignity, which he had no power to resent.

An 1883 newspaper article stated that “‘The Bouncer’ is merely the English ‘chucker out’. When liberty verges on license and gaiety on wanton delirium, the Bouncer selects the gayest of the gay, and bounces him!”7

19th century

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia An Arizona saloon in 1885, from the era when bouncers earned their rough and tumble reputation by forcibly ejecting brawlers

In US Western towns in the 1870s, high-class brothels known as “good houses” or “parlour houses” hired bouncers for security and to prevent patrons from evading payment. “Good house”-style brothels “… considered themselves the cream of the crop, and the prostitutes working there scorned those who worked in (or out of) saloons, dance halls, and theatres.” The best bordellos looked like respectable mansions, with attractively decorated parlours, a game room and a dance hall. For security, “somewhere in every parlor house there was always a bouncer, a giant of a man who stayed sober to handle any customer who got too rough with one of the girls or didn’t want to pay his bill.” The “protective presence” of bouncers in high-class brothels was “… one of the reasons the girls considered themselves superior to lower-class free-lancers, who lacked any such shepherds.”8

In Wisconsin’s lumberjack days, bouncers would physically remove drinkers who were too drunk to keep buying drinks, and thus free up space in the bar for new patrons. The slang term ‘snake-room’ was used to describe a “…room off a saloon, usually two or three steps down, into which a bar-keeper or the bouncer could slide drunk lumber-jacks head first through swinging doors from the bar-room.”9 In the late 19th century, until Prohibition, bouncers also had the unusual role of protecting the saloon’s buffet. To attract business, “…many saloons lured customers with offers of a “free lunch” usually well salted to inspire drinking, and the saloon “bouncer” was generally on hand to discourage those with too hearty appetites”.10

In the late 19th century, bouncers at small town dances and bars physically resolved disputes and removed troublemakers, without worrying about lawsuits. In the main bar in one Iowa town, “…there were many quarrels, many fights, but all were settled on the spot. There were no court costs for the bouncers or the bar; only some aches and pains for the troublemakers.”11

In the 1880s and 1890s, bouncers were used to maintain order in the “The Gut”, the roughest part of New York’s Coney Island, which was filled with “ramshackle groups of wooden shanties”, bars, cabarets, fleabag hotels and brothels.

Huge bouncers patrolled these venues of vice and “roughly ejected anyone who violated the loose rules of decorum” by engaging in pick-pocketing, jewellry thieving, or bloody fights.12

During the 1890s, San Diego had a similarly rough waterfront area and redlight district called the ‘Stingaree‘, where bouncers worked the door at brothels. Prostitutes worked at the area’s 120 bawdy houses in small rooms, paying a fee to the procurer who usually was the bouncer or ‘protector’ of the brothel. The more expensive, higher-class brothels were called “parlour houses”, and they were “run most decorously”, and the “best of food and drink was served.” To maintain the high-class atmosphere at these establishments, male patrons were expected to act like gentlemen; “… if any customer did or said anything out of line, he was asked to leave. A bouncer made sure he did”.13

20th century

Bouncers in pre-World War I United States were also sometimes used as the guardians of morality. As ballroom dancing was often considered as an activity which could lead to immoral conduct if the dancers got too close, some of the more reputable venues had bouncers to remind patrons not to dance closer than nine inches to their partners. The bouncers’ warnings tended to consist of light taps on the shoulder at first, and then progressed to sterner remonstrations.14

In the 1930s, bars in the bawdiest parts of Baltimore, Maryland docks hired bouncers to maintain order and eject aggressive patrons. The Oasis club, operated by Max Cohen, hired “…a lady bouncer by the name of Mickey Steele, a six-foot acrobat from the Pennsylvania coal fields. Mickey was always considerate of the people she bounced; first asking them where they lived and then throwing them in that general direction.

She was succeeded by a character known as ‘Machine-Gun Butch’ who was a long-time bouncer at the club”.15

In the Weimar Republic in the Germany of the 1920s and early 1930s, doormen protected venues from the fights caused by Nazis and other potentially violent groups (such as Communists). Such scenes were fictionalised in the movie Cabaret. Hitler surrounded himself with a number of former bouncers such as Christian Weber;16 the SS originated as a group designated to protect party meetings.17

In early Nazi Germany, some bouncers in underground jazz clubs were also hired to screen for Nazi spies, because jazz was considered a “degenerate” form of music by the Nazi party.18 Later during the Nazi regime, bouncers also increasingly barred non-German people (such as foreign workers) from public functions, such as ‘German’ dances at dance halls.19

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia The doorman from the Ohio-Bar in Berlin in 1948

Bouncers also often come into conflict with football hooligans, due to the tendency of groups of hooligans to congregate at pubs and bars before and after games. In the United Kingdom for example, long-running series of feuds between fan groups like The Blades and groups of bouncers in the 1990s were described by researchers.20

Bouncers have also been known to be associated with criminal gangs, especially in places like Russia, Hong Kong or Japan, where bouncers may often belong to these groups or have to pay the crime syndicates to be able to operate.21 In Hong Kong, triad-connected reprisal or intimidation attacks against bouncers have been known to occur.22

Hong Kong also features a somewhat unusual situation where some bouncers are known to work for prostitutes, instead of being their pimps. Hong Kong police have noted that due to the letter of the law, they sometimes had to charge the bouncer for illegally extorting the women when the usually expected dominance situation between the sex worker and her ‘protector’ was in fact reversed.23

In the 1990s and 2000s, a number of bouncers have written “tell-all” books about their experiences on the door. They indicate that male bouncers are respected by some club-goers as the ultimate ‘hard men’, while at the same time, these bouncers can also be lightning rods for aggression and macho posturing on the part of obnoxious male customers wanting to prove themselves.24 Bouncing has also started to attract some academic interest as part of ethnographic studies into violent subcultures. Bouncers were selected as one of the groups studied by several English researchers in the 1990s because their culture was seen as ‘grounded in violence’, as well as because the group had increasingly been ‘demonised’, especially in common liberal discourse (see Research section of this article).25

Research and sociology

Outside studies

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer stands outside a pawn shop.

In the early 1990s, an Australian government study on violence stated that violent incidents in public drinking locations are caused by the interaction of five factors: aggressive and unreasonable bouncers, groups of male strangers, low comfort (e.g., unventilated, hot clubs), high boredom, and high drunkenness. The research indicated that bouncers did not play as large a role “… as expected in the creation of an aggressive or violence prone atmosphere in bars.” However, the study did show that “…edgy and aggressive bouncers, especially when they are arbitrary or petty in their manner, do have an adverse effect.” The study stated that bouncers:

“…have been observed to initiate fights or further encourage them on several occasions.

Many seem poorly trained, obsessed with their own machismo, and relate badly to groups of male strangers. Some of them appear to regard their employment as giving them a licence to assault people. This may be encouraged by management adherence to a repressive model of supervision of patrons (“if they play up, thump ’em”), which in fact does not reduce trouble, and exacerbates an already hostile and aggressive situation. In practice many bouncers are not well managed in their work, and appear to be given a job autonomy and discretion that they cannot handle well.”26

A 1998 article “Responses by Security Staff to Aggressive Incidents in Public Settings” in the Journal of Drug Issues examined 182 violent incidents involving crowd controllers (bouncers) that occurred in bars in Toronto, Canada. The study indicated that in 12% of the incidents the bouncers had good responses, in 20% of the incidents, the bouncers had a neutral response; and in 36% of the incidents, the bouncers “… responses were rated as bad that is, the crowd controllers enhanced the likelihood of violence but were themselves not violent.” Finally, “… in almost one-third of incidents, 31 per cent, the crowd controllers’ responses were rated as ugly. The controllers’ actions involved gratuitous aggression, harassment of patrons and provocative behaviour.”27

Inside studies

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer at a pub wearing a distinctive striped shirt.

At least one major ethnographic study also observed bouncing from within, as part of a British project to study violent subcultures. Beyond studying the bouncer culture from the outside, the group selected a suitable candidate for covert, long-term research.

The man had previously worked as a bouncer before becoming an academic, and while conversant with the milieu, it required some time for him to re-enter bouncing work in a new locality.28 The study has, however, attracted some criticism due to the fact that the researcher, while fulfilling his duties as a bouncer and being required to set aside his academic distance, would have been at risk of losing objectivity though it was accepted that this quandary might be difficult to resolve.29

One of the main ethical issues of the research was the participation of the researcher in violence, and to what degree he would be allowed to participate. The group could not fully resolve this issue, as the undercover researcher would not have been able to gain the trust of his peers while shying away from the use of force. As part of the study it eventually became clear that bouncers themselves were similarly and constantly weighing up the limits and uses of their participation in violence. The research however found that instead of being a part of the occupation, violence itself was the defining characteristic, a “culture created around violence and violent expectation”.25

The bouncing culture’s insular attitudes also extended to the recruitment process, which was mainly by word of mouth as opposed to typical job recruitment, and also depended heavily on previous familiarity with violence. This does not extend to the prospective bouncer himself having to have a reputation for violence rather a perception was needed that he could deal with it if required. Various other elements, such as body language or physical looks (muscles, shaved heads) were also described as often expected for entry into bouncing being part of the symbolic ‘narratives of intimidation’ that set bouncers apart in their work environment.25

Training on the job was described as very limited, with the new bouncers being ‘thrown into the deep end’ the fact that they had been accepted for the job in the first place including the assessment that they should know what they are doing (though informal observation of a beginner’s behaviour was commonplace). In the case of the British research project, the legally required licensing as a bouncer was also found to be expected by employers before applicants started the job (and as licensing generally excluded people with criminal convictions, this kept out some of the more unstable violent personalities).25

Personality and behaviour

Character

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer at the door of a Norwegian club checking customer identification for proof of age.

Although a common stereotype of bouncers is that of the thuggish brute, a good club security staff member requires more than just physical qualities such as strength and size: “The best bouncers don t “bounce” anyone… they talk to people” (and remind them of the venue rules).3031

An ability to judge and communicate well with people will reduce the need for physical intervention, while a steady personality will prevent the bouncer from being easily provoked by customers. Bouncers also profit from good written communication skills, because they are often required to document assaults in an incident log or using an incident form.

Well-kept incident logs can protect the employee from any potential criminal charges or lawsuits that later arise from an incident.32

However, British research from the 1990s also indicates that a major part of both the group identity and the job satisfaction of bouncers is related to their self image as a strongly masculine person who is capable of dealing with and dealing out violence; their employment income plays a lesser role in their job satisfaction. Bouncer subculture is strongly influenced by perceptions of honour and shame, a typical characteristic of groups that are in the public eye,33 as well as warrior cultures in general. Factors in enjoying work as a bouncer were also found in the general prestige and respect that was accorded to bouncers, sometimes bordering on hero worship. The camaraderie between bouncers (even of different clubs), as well as the ability to work “in the moment” and outside of the drudgery of typical jobs were also often cited.34

The same research has also indicated that the decisions made by bouncers, while seeming haphazard to an outsider, often have a basis in rational logic. The decision to turn certain customers away at the door because of too casual clothing (face control) is for example often based on the perception that the person will be more willing to fight (compared to someone dressed in expensive attire). Many similar decisions taken by a bouncer during the course of a night are also being described as based on experience rather than just personality.35

Excessive force

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer gives the “thumbs up” signal.

Movies often depict bouncers physically throwing patrons out of clubs and restraining drunk customers with headlocks, which has led to a popular misconception that bouncers have (or reserve) the right to use physical force freely. However, in many countries bouncers have no legal authority to use physical force more freely than any other civilian meaning they are restricted to reasonable levels of force used in self defense, to eject drunk or aggressive patrons refusing to leave a venue, or when restraining a patron who has committed an offence until police arrive.3236 Lawsuits are possible if injuries occur, even if the patron was drunk or using aggressive language.32

With civil liability and court costs related to the use of force as “the highest preventable loss found within the industry…” (US)32 and bars being “sued more often for using unnecessary or excessive force than for any other reason” (Canada),37 substantial costs may be incurred by indiscriminate violence against patrons though this depends heavily on the laws and customs of the country. In Australia, the number of complaints and lawsuits against venues due to the behaviour of their bouncers has been credited with turning many establishments to using former police officers to head their in-house security, instead of hiring private firms.38

According to statistical research in Canada, bouncers are as likely to face physical violence in their work as urban-area police officers. The research also found that the likelihood of such encounters increased (with statistical significance) with the number of years the bouncer had worked in his occupation.39 Despite popular misconceptions, bouncers in Western countries are normally unarmed.4041 Some bouncers may carry weapons such as expandable batons for personal protection,42 but they may not have a legal right to carry a weapon even if they would prefer to do so.

Alternatives

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer (wearing a black tennis shirt) controlling access to a well-known pawn shop.

Use of force training programs teach bouncers ways to avoid using force and explain what types of force are considered allowable by the courts.32 Some bars have gone so far as to institute policies barring physical contact, where bouncers are instructed to ask a drunk or disorderly patron to leave if the patron refuses, the bouncers call police. However, if the police are called too frequently, it can reflect badly on the venue upon renewal of its liquor licence.43

Another strategy used in some bars is to hire smaller, less threatening or female bouncers, because they may be better able to defuse conflicts than large, intimidating bouncers. The more ‘impressive’ bouncers, in the often tense environments they are supposed to supervise, are also often challenged by aggressive males wanting to prove their machismo.24 Large and intimidating bouncers, whilst providing an appearance of strong security, may also drive customers away in cases where a more relaxed environment is desired.31 In addition, female security staff, apart from having fewer problems searching female patrons for drugs or weapons and entering women’s washrooms to check for illegal activities, are also considered as better able to deal with drunk or aggressive women.44

In Australia, for example, women comprise almost 20% of the security industry and increasingly work the door as well, using “a smile, chat and a friendly but firm demeanor” to resolve tense situations.45 Nearly one in nine of Britain’s nightclub bouncers are also women, with the UK’s 2003 Licensing Act giving the authorities “discretionary power to withhold a venue’s licence if it does not employ female door staff.” This is credited with having “opened the door for women to enter the profession.”.44 However, female bouncers are still a rarity in many countries, such as in India, where two women who became media celebrities in 2008 for being “Punjab‘s first female bouncers” were soon sacked again after accusations of unbecoming behaviour.4647

Regulation and training

In many countries, a bouncer must be licensed and lacking a criminal record to gain employment within the security/crowd control sector. In some countries or regions, bouncers may be required to have extra skills or special licenses and certification for first aid, alcohol distribution, crowd control, or fire safety.

Canada

In Canada, bouncers have the right to use reasonable force to expel intoxicated or aggressive patrons. First, the patron must be asked to leave the premises. If the patron refuses to leave, the bouncer can use reasonable force to expel the patron. This has been upheld in a number of court cases.36 Under the definition of ‘reasonable force’, “it is perfectly acceptable for the bouncer to grab a patron s arm to remove the patron from the premises.” However, “Only in situations where employees reasonably believe that the conduct of the patron puts them in danger can they inflict harm on a patron and then only to the extent that such force is necessary for self defence.”36

In British Columbia, door staff security (bouncers) are required to become certified under the Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General Office.

The course called BST (Basic Security Training) is a 40-hour program that covers law, customer service, and other issue related to security operation. In Alberta, bar and nightclub security staff will have to take a new, government-run training course on correct bouncer behaviour and skills before the end of 2008. The six-hour ‘ProTect’ course will, among other subjects, teach staff to identify conflicts before they become violent, and how to defuse situations without resorting to force.48

In Ontario, courts have ruled that “a tavern owes a twofold duty of care to its patrons. It must ensure that it does not serve alcohol which would apparently intoxicate or increase the patron’s intoxication. further, it must take positive steps to protect patrons and others from the dangers of intoxication.” Regarding the second requirement of protecting patrons, the law holds that “customers cannot be ejected from your premises if doing so would put them in danger e.g., due to the patron’s intoxication. Bars can be held liable for ejecting a customer who they know, or should know, is at risk of injury by being ejected.”37

In Ontario, bartenders and servers have to have completed the Smart Serve Training Program, which teaches them to recognise the signs of intoxication. The Smart Serve program is also recommended for other staff in bars who have contact with potentially intoxicated patrons, such as bouncers, coat check staff, and valets.

The Smart Serve certification program encourages bars to keep Incident Reporting Logs, to use as evidence if an incident gets to court.37 With the August 2007 Private Security and Investigative Services Act, Ontario law also requires security industry workers, including bouncers to be licensed.49

Italy

The law defines bouncers as “security subsidiary unarmed operator” and they must have specific requisites:50

  • at least 18 years
  • no alcohol or drugs in preventive clinical analysis
  • mental and physical suitability
  • have not been convicted for any intentional crimes
  • at least lower high school diploma
  • follow a training course

Bouncers must not have any type of arm during their service even if they have a valid firearms license.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, as of 2011, Bouncers are required to have a COA (Certificate of approval). Like other security work, the person who has the COA has been vetted by the Police and cleared through security checks, as well as the Courts to show the person is suitable for the job, and knows New Zealand law to prevent Security Officers going to Court for using excessive force and assault on Patrons.51

Singapore

Singapore requires all bouncers to undergo a background check and attend a 5-day ‘National Skills Recognition System’ course for security staff. However, many of the more professional security companies (and larger venues with their own dedicated security staff) have noted that the course is insufficient for the specific requirements of a bouncer and provide their own additional training.52

United Kingdom

In the UK, “door supervisors” as they are termed must hold a licence from the Security Industry Authority. The training for a door supervisor licence takes 32.5 hours since the current changes were implemented on the 1st January 2015, and includes issues such as behaviour, conflict management, civil and criminal law, search and arrest procedures, drug awareness, recording of incidents and crime scene preservation, licensing law, equal opportunities and discrimination, health and safety at work, physical intervention, and emergency procedures.53 Licenses must be renewed every three years. One current provider of training is the British Institute of Innkeeping Awarding Body. Licensed door supervisors must wear a blue plastic licence (often worn on the upper arm) whilst on duty.

The 2010 UK quango reforms includes the SIA amongst many other Quangos the coalition government intended to be disbanded, ostensibly on the overall grounds of cost, despite the SIA being essentially self-funding via licence payments. Whilst this may alleviate to some extent the financial burden on employers and individuals alike, some members of the industry sees this as a retrograde step, fearing a return of the organised criminal element to the currently regulated industry.

Republic of Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland all potential doormen (Bouncers) must complete a QQI level 4 course in Door Security Procedures. This allows them to apply for a PSA license (Private Security Authority). The PSA vet all applicants before issuing a license, Subsequently some past convictions will disqualify an applicant from working in the security industry. The license issued by the PSA entitles the holder of the license to work on pubs, clubs and event security. The PSA now requires you to have a licence to work in Event Security.

United States

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia A bouncer with a bar’s hired stiltwalker in the East Village.

Requirements for bouncers vary from state to state, with some examples being:

California

In California, Senate Bill 194 requires any bouncer or security guard to be registered with the State of California Department of Consumer Affairs Bureau of Security and Investigative Services. These guards must also complete a criminal background check, including submitting their fingerprints to the California Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Californians must undertake the “Skills Training Course for Security Guards” before receiving a security licence. Further courses allow for qualified security personnel to carry batons upon completion of training.54

New York

In New York State, it is illegal for a bar owner to knowingly hire a felon for a bouncer position. Under Article 7 General Business Law, bars and nightclubs are not allowed to hire bouncers without a proper license. Under New York state law only a Private Investigator or Watch, Guard and Patrol Agency can supply security guards/bouncers to bars.55

Notable bouncers

References

  1. ^ Leick, Gwendolyn (1994). Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature. Routledge. p.

    252. ISBN 9780415065344. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  2. ^ Penglase, Charles (1997). Greek Myths and Mesopotamia: Parallels and Influence in the Homeric Hymns and Hesiod. Psychology Press. p.

    27. ISBN 9780415157063. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  3. ^ Hicks, John Mark (2001). 1 & 2 Chronicles.

    College Press. pp.

    229 230. ISBN 9780899008837. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  4. ^ Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). “Porter“. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  5. ^ Plautus; Terence; Berg, Deena; Douglass Parker (1999-03-12). Five Comedies: Miles Gloriosus, Menaechmi, Bacchides, Hecyra and Adelphoe. Hackett Publishing. p.

    193. ISBN 9780872203624. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  6. ^ De Fuga in Persecutione – Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, via The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XI, Second Edition, Page 393, Cambridge University Press, 1970
  7. ^ Unknown article nameLondon Daily News, Thursday 26 July 1883, via the Online Etymological Dictionary
  8. ^ The Ladies; God Bless ‘Em! – Shady Ladies of the Old West Jeffords, Christine; private homepage at rootsweb.com
  9. ^ Snake-room (logging) (from Logger’s Words of Yesteryears Sorden, L.G.; Isabel J. Ebert; Madison, 1956, via wisconsinhistory.net)
  10. ^ Drinking in America: A History – Search for Consensus: Drinking and the War Against Pluralism, 1860-1920 Lender, Mark Edward & Martin, James Kirby, The Free Press, New York, 1982
  11. ^ Schleswig, Iowa: The First 75 Years: Hohenzollern, Morgan Township: 1883-1899 compiled by Lillian M. (Kuehl) Jackso and Emma L. (Brasse) Struck, private homepage at rootsweb.com
  12. ^ Coney Island – Early History (1881 1903) (from private website westland.net)
  13. ^ When The Red Lights Went Out In San Diego” Macphail, Elizabeth, The Journal of San Diego History, Spring 1974, Volume 20, Number 2
  14. ^ 1914 – America, and the phonograph industry, on the verge of the Great War (from the ‘intertique.com’ website. Accessed 2008-02-05.)
  15. ^ Baltimore’s Bawdy “Block” – Hull, Stephen; Stag, 1952 (at the moment only via Google cache)
  16. ^ Zalampas, Sherree Owens (1990-01-01). Adolf Hitler: A Psychological Interpretation of His Views on Architecture, Art, and Music. Popular Press. p.

    40. ISBN 9780879724887. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  17. ^ German Commanders of World War II. Osprey Publishing.

    1982. p.

    5. ISBN 9780850454338.

  18. ^ Huener, Jonathan; Nicosia, Francis R. (2006). The Arts in Nazi Germany: Continuity, Conformity, Change. Berghahn Books.

    p.

    96. ISBN 9781845452094. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  19. ^ Herbert, Ulrich (1997). Hitler’s Foreign Workers: Enforced Foreign Labor in Germany Under the Third Reich. Cambridge University Press. p.

    8. ISBN 9780521470001. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  20. ^ Armstrong, Gary (1998). Football Hooligans: Knowing the Score. Bloomsbury Academic. p.

    77. ISBN 9781859739570. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  21. ^ Hill, Peter B. E. (2006-01-26). The Japanese Mafia: Yakuza, Law, and the State.

    OUP Oxford. pp.

    23, 285. ISBN 9780199291618. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  22. ^ The victim, the exception – Hong Kong Stories feature, Journalism and Media Studies Centre, University of Hong Kong, 13 May 2007
  23. ^ Chu, Yiu-kong (2002-01-04). The Triads as Business. Taylor & Francis. p.

    101. ISBN 9780203030004. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  24. ^ a b Nightclub Bouncers Tell All – Tales from behind the velvet ropeThe Boston Phoenix, via the ‘BostonNightclubNews.com’ website. Accessed 2008-02-02.
  25. ^ a b c d Get Ready To Duck Winlow, Simon; Hobbs, Dick; Lister, Stuart; Hadfield, Phillip; British Journal of Criminology, No 41, 2001, Pages 536 548. Accessed 2008-05-04.
  26. ^ Australian Violence: Contemporary Perspectives (PDF) – Chappell, Duncan; Grabosky, Peter & Strang, Heather; Australian Institute of Criminology, 1991
  27. ^ SECURITY INDUSTRY AMENDMENT (PATRON PROTECTION) BILL 2007
  28. ^ Get Ready To Duck – Winlow, Simon; Hobbs, Dick; Lister, Stuart; Hadfield, Phillip; British Journal of Criminology, No 41, 2001, Page 537. Accessed 2009-01-08.
  29. ^ Is there a place for covert research methods in criminology? – Wells, Helen M., Graduate Journal of Social Science, 2004, Vol.

    1 Issue 1. Accessed 2008-05-04.

  30. ^ Bouncers & Doormen (from the crimedoctor.com website, Accessed 2008-05-02.)
  31. ^ a b Bouncers to the rescueTimes of India, 2 May 2005
  32. ^ a b c d e Safety and Security for Liquor Licensees (from the Michigan Licensed Beverage Association‘s website. Accessed 2008-02-01.)
  33. ^ Get Ready To Duck – Winlow, Simon; Hobbs, Dick; Lister, Stuart; Hadfield, Phillip; British Journal of Criminology, No 41, 2001, Page 541.

    Accessed 2009-01-09.

  34. ^ Get Ready To Duck – Winlow, Simon; Hobbs, Dick; Lister, Stuart; Hadfield, Phillip; British Journal of Criminology, No 41, 2001, Pages 541-542. Accessed 2009-01-08.
  35. ^ Get Ready To Duck – Winlow, Simon; Hobbs, Dick; Lister, Stuart; Hadfield, Phillip; British Journal of Criminology, No 41, 2001, Page 543. Accessed 2009-01-08.
  36. ^ a b c Civil liability of commercial providers of alcohol (PDF) – Folick, Lorne P.S.; Dolden Wallace Folick, Vancouver, April 2005
  37. ^ a b c Did you know? (from the October 2005 newsletter of ‘Smart Serve Ontario’, Ontario, Canada)
  38. ^ ‘Cowardly’ bouncers terrorising pub, club patronsThe Australian, Wednesday 28 February 2007
  39. ^ Nightclub security and surveillance 1 (book excerpt from Policing the nightclub) – Rigakos, George S.; The Canadian Review of Policing Research, 2004. Accessed 2008-02-05.
  40. ^ a b Betty chats with the new hunk on the block, Vin DieselVin Diesel interview via ‘beatboxbettty.com’. Accessed 2008-02-02.
  41. ^ “Gunfight at bar leaves one wounded, another in custody”, New Hampshire Union Leader, April 15, 2007
  42. ^ Baton and Handcuff course (from the ‘secta.com.au’ company website. Accessed 2008-02-02.)
  43. ^ “Police seek liquor license denials for two local bars”. The World. Retrieved 2008-10-29.
  44. ^ a b Why women want to join the clubThe Independent, Tuesday 3 October 2006, via findarticles.com
  45. ^ “Mate, Don’t Call These Bouncers Babe” (Abstract) New York Times, Wednesday, 18 April 2001
  46. ^ “Chandigarh’s brawny female bouncers ‘man’ nightclub” Nerve of India, Monday 28 July 2008
  47. ^ “Punjab’s first female bouncers lose their jobs” DNA India, Thursday 16 October 2008
  48. ^ Bouncers take course or they’re outEdmonton Journal, Saturday February 2, 2008
  49. ^ Private Investigators and Security Guards – Licensing (from the Ontario Ministry of Community Safety and Corrections website. Accessed 2008-02-05.)
  50. ^ Art.

    1 comma 4 law 6 october 2009, from a) to g)

  51. ^ http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/PSPLA/applying-for-a-licence-or-certificate-of-approval-1
  52. ^ How do clubs select bouncers? ‘It’s not just about wearing a black shirt’The Electric New Paper, Friday 1 February 2008
  53. ^ Get Licensed – SIA licensing criteria (PDF) (from the Security Industry Authority, Great Britain. Accessed 2008-05-02.)
  54. ^ New Security Guard Training Regulation (from the California Department of Consumer Affairs website.

    Accessed 2008-03-26.)

  55. ^ Last Call for the Falls? (blog entry on Village Voice, with further references)
  56. ^ 1 Harry Alsop, “Pope Francis: 20 things you didn’t know”, The Daily Telegraph 14 March 2013
  57. ^ 2, O.Canada.com. Accessed 2015-04-21.
  58. ^ History Files – Al Capone (from the Chicago History Museum website. Accessed 2008-02-02.)
  59. ^ 3 (from his official biography on WWE.com. Accessed 2011-06-11.)
  60. ^ “White: GSP more famous than Gretzky”. Sportsnet.

    5 December 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2012.

  61. ^ Mr T – Biography (from the ‘netglimse.com’ website. Accessed 2008-02-02.)
  62. ^ Cop doesn’t know how to stopThe New York Times, via ‘theage.com.au’ website. Accessed 2008-02-02.
  63. ^ From Bouncer to OscarReel.com interview with Michael Clarke Duncan. Accessed 2008-02-02.
  64. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/742087.stm
  65. ^ James Gandolfini bio, askmen.com. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  66. ^ Testimony (from the ‘witnessjesus.org’ website.

    Accessed 2008-02-02.)

  67. ^ a b c http://www.dolphlundgren.com/about/biography.html
  68. ^ About (from the Official Lenny McLean website. Accessed 2008-02-02.)
  69. ^ Strongman Glenn just a gentle giant (article excerpt from The News Letter, Belfast, Northern Ireland, via ‘highbeam.com’. Accessed 2008-02-05.)
  70. ^ The Ravishing One :The Story Of Rick Rude a True Class Act.
  71. ^ “Doorman to world domination”. BBC.co.uk.

    29 January 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2014.

  72. ^ Geoff Thompson (from the rdf management company website. Accessed 2008-02-02.)
  73. ^ The “Bouncer” Defense of Odontomachus Ruginodis and other Odontomachine Ants (Hymenoptera Formicidae) – Carlin, Norman F. & Gladstein, David, S., Psyche, 1989, Volume 96, No.

    1-2, Page 3

  74. ^ Committee, Great Britain: Parliament: House of Lords: European Union (2008-03-05). FRONTEX: the EU external borders agency, 9th report of session 2007-08, report with evidence. The Stationery Office. p.

    165. ISBN 9780104012321. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

  75. ^ Ren, Xin (1997-01-01). Tradition of the Law and Law of the Tradition: Law, State, and Social Control in China. Greenwood Publishing Group.

    p.

    139. ISBN 9780313290961.

    Retrieved 8 May 2014.

Further reading

  • Jamie O’Keefe – Old School-New School: Guide to Bouncers, Security and Registered Door Supervisors, New Breed Publishing, August 1997. ISBN 0-9517567-6-1
  • Lee Morrison – Safe on the Door: The Complete Guide for Door Supervisors, Hodder Arnold, February 2006. ISBN 0-340-90575-1
  • Lee Morrison – Up Close, Nothing Personal: Practical Self-Protection for Door Security Staff, Apex Publishing, December 2003. ISBN 1-904432-25-5
  • Robin Barratt – Doing the doors: A Life on the Door, Milo Books, 1 February 2004, ISBN 1-903854-19-9
  • Robin Barratt – Confessions of a Doorman, Diverse Publications Ltd, 22 June 2006, ISBN 0-9548143-2-0
  • Robin Barratt – Bouncers and Bodyguards, Mainstream Publishing, 5 March 2006, ISBN 978-1-84596-458-0
  • Robin Barratt – Respect and Reputation – On The Doors, in Prison and in Life, Apex Publishing, June 2010, ISBN 978-1-906358-81-5
  • Ivan Holiday Arsenault – The Bouncer’s Bible, Turner Paige Publishing, 15 January 1999, ISBN 1-929036-00-0
  • Ivan Holiday Arsenault – The Cooler’s Grimiore, Outskirt Press Publishing, 6 July 2008, ISBN 1-4327-2641-2
  • Ivan Holiday Arsenault – Sun Tzu & The Art of Bouncing, Outskirt Press Publishing, 15 April 2011, ISBN 978-1-4327-7093-8
  • Ivan Holiday Arsenault – The Bouncer’s Bible – 2nd Edition, Outskirt Press Publishing, 19 July 2011, ISBN 978-1-4327-7089-1
  • George Rigakos – Nightclub: Bouncers, Risk, and the Spectacle of Consumption, McGill-Queen’s University Press May 2008 ISBN 978-0-7735-3362-2
  • Jason Dyson – Door Supervisors Course Book – National Door Supervisors Qualification, Highfield January 2010 ISBN 978-1-906404-84-0
  • Stu Armstrong – The Diaries of a Doorman Volume One
  • Stu Armstrong – The Diaries of a Doorman Vol 2
  • Stu Armstrong – The Diaries of a Doorman Vol 3
  • Stu Armstrong and Ryder Scott – So you want to be a bouncer

External links

Bartending Occupations

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia Alcoholic beverages

Non-alcoholic mixers

Equipment

Garnishes Edible

Inedible

People List of bartenders Terminology

Bouncer (doorman) - Wikipedia Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bouncer_(doorman)&oldid=742162290